The Lost World

The Lost World (Comparison/Contrast): The Lost World as a novel is very
different from its film version. The most contrasts are found in the beginning
of the story. For instance, the novel starts off with Ian Malcolm giving a
detailed lecture on extinction theories at the Santa Fe Research Center. Where
as, the film starts with a wealthy British family vacationing on Isla Sorna, an
island of Costa Rica.

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Category:
Music & Movies
Paper Title:
The Lost World (Comparison/Contrast)
Text:
Jurassic Park – The Lost World
Comparison Contrast
The Lost World as a novel is very different from its film version. The most
contrasts are found in the beginning of the story. For instance, the novel
starts off with Ian Malcolm giving a detailed lecture on extinction theories at
the Santa Fe Research Center. Where as, the film starts with a wealthy British
family vacationing on Isla Sorna, an island of Costa Rica. On this island the
tiny dinosaurs called compys attack a young British girl. As you can see the
beginning of the novel is completely different from the beginning of the film.

As a matter of fact, the novel and the film do not begin to have any
similarities until the characters get to Site-B, an island off of Costa Rica
where the dinosaurs where bred.

The characters in The Lost World did have a lot of similarities as well as
differences. One major character is Ian Malcolm, a forty-year-old man who was
one of the early pioneers in the Chaos Theory. Malcolm also featured in the
first Jurassic Park. Even though he was in both the novel and the film, his
characteristics were different. In the novel his leg was hurt from his previous
expedition in the first Jurassic Park, but in the film he seemed to be perfectly
healthy and uninjured. Another character that plays a major roll is Richard
Levine, an arrogant thirty-year-old man. In the novel Levine plays as a wealthy
paleontologist in search of Site-B. As for the film, Richard Levine plays a
completely different roll. In the film he is the nephew of John Hammond, the
creator of the dinosaurs. He also has no association with being a
paleontologist; his interests in the movie are for making money off the
dinosaurs by creating an amusement park that features the dinosaurs on the main
land. Sarah Harding plays a big part in then novel and as well as the film. In
the novel Harding plays a rather young biologist, which has a relationship with
Ian Malcolm. The only difference with Harding between the novel and the film is
that she plays a biologist in the novel and a paleontologist in the film.

Another two characters that play a major roll in the novel are Kelly Curtis and
Arby Benton. Kelly is a thirteen-year-old seventh grader, who has an interest in
paleontology, not to mention that she idols Sarah Harding. Arby is an
eleven-year-old African American seventh grader; he has been skipped up a grade
because he is so intelligent. In the novel the two children sneak on to the boat
is on the expedition to Site-B. In the film there is only one child, a young
African American girl named Kelly that is related to Ian Malcolm by adoption,
which also sneaks on to the island.

The most similar of the novel and film is probably the terrain of Costa Rica.

This is probably because the terrain is a known fact that cannot be changed. In
both the novel and film, the terrain is covered with rocky cliffs and volcanic
ridges. Ravines, tall grasses, and very dense overgrown jungles also flourished
the island. Considering the dense overgrown jungles it was very hard for the
characters to see the buildings and roads from the air, which made it difficult
to find a good place to land. One thing that made it difficult to travel,
besides the dinosaurs hunting them, was the gusty winds with updrafts.

The dinosaurs were obviously similar in the novel and film. The only thing
that contrasted the two is the fact that the novel had more of a variety of
dinosaurs than the film. There were three dinosaurs that were mainly featured in
the novel and film. Among the three, was the famous Tyrannosaurs Rex, which
caused the most damage and casualties. The T-Rex reaches about twenty to
twenty-five feet in height and has gigantic bone crushing jaws with flesh
tearing teeth. Another one was the Velociraptor, more commonly known as the
raptor. The raptors were probably the smartest of the dinosaurs. The raptor
reaches about ten to fifteen feet in height, has a long snout, and long deadly
claws that would tear an animal or a human apart. The Compys were definitely the
creepiest because of how they kill their prey in packs. Although they look very
innocent and harmless they can kill their prey in an instant. The Compy was
about one to one and a half feet tall. They pretty much looked like a miniature
raptor.

The Lost World from the novel to the film definitely had a high number of
contrasts. The beginning as we know completely had no similarities at all. The
novel and the film did not start to have comparison until the characters arrived
on Site-B. The characters did have some similarities, but mostly differences.

More or less, the names were what made them similar more than anything. There
rolls in the novel and film were what differed the most. Nonetheless, the novel
and film did seem to have very similar parts in one area, which was the setting
of the islands. The terrain in the novel was practically identical to the one in
the film. The dinosaurs as well had many similarities, except for the fact that
there was more of a variety in the novel than there was in the film. In the end,
both version of the great story were spectacular.


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Muckrakers

Muckraking was a powerful journalistic force, whose supporters made it become so. Muckraking was the practice of writers and critics exposing corrupt politicians and business practices. President Theodore Roosevelt made the term “muck-raker” popular. He once said
The man with the muck-rake, the man who could look no way but downward with the muck-rake in his hands; who was offered a celestial crown for his muckrake, but who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was offered, but continued to rake himself the filth of the floor.

Some, like Roosevelt viewed methods of muckrakers such as Ida Tarbell, Ray S. Baker, Lincoln Steffens, and Upton Sinclair as these types of people. Others saw these muckraking methods as perfectly acceptable for fighting against the industrial powerhouses. Either way, these muckrakers worked hard to arouse sentiment in the hearts of the public (Reiger 1).

Muckraking actually began long before the years of 1900-1902, when the muckraking movement is credited to have begun. Jesus was probably the first muckraker. Years later, Martin Luther exposed the corruptness of the Catholic Church. Also, early Abolitionist works–Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Helper’s The Impending Crisis used muckraking to get a point across. However, events during the 1890s most directly paved the way for the critiques and exposures of existing conditions. This period was able to reach a limited upper class and the muckrakers were able to expand appeal to the average middle class citizen (Reiger 49-50).

One reason for the outspread of muckraking was the explosion of journalism. From 1870-1909 the number of daily newspapers circulated boomed from 574 to 2,600 and the number of subscribers from 2,800,000 to 24,800,000. With this increase, newspaper owners and editors needed new bait to reel in its subscribers. The newspaper editors wanted to replace ordinary town gossip with gossip about the latest events of the city. Therefore, in newspapers they placed the most shocking events and kept the rural mind drooling for more. As newspaper circulation grew, the large newspaper depended much less on political parties and could now even challenge them. Newspapers played on the new human interest, the concern of the wealthy with the affairs of those below them, status-wise. This “story of the poor” became the basic outline for muckraking (Hofstadter 185-188).

This new concern of the public demanded more from reporters. Reporters had to dig up exposs and human-interest stories. However, reporters received more and more notice from the public eye. A reporter’s job was becoming more and more glamorous and held the aspirations of a growing number of young. As this occurred, those of education and those of culture sought out the reporter’s field (Hofstadter 189-190).

As newspapers saw a radical change, magazines observed one as well. Previous magazines received limited audiences and were run by literary men. The new magazines, emerging in 1900 were run by business promoters and reached audiences ranging from 400,000 to 1,000,000. They took a turn away from literature and began writing what greatly resembled news. These magazines, many of which by accident, began producing muckraking articles. One of the most significant of these muckraking magazines was McClure’s. Others included Hampton’s and Pearson’s. Magazines such as Cosmopolitan and Collier’s produced some muckraking articles, but were not muckraking magazines in themselves (Hofstadter 190-191).

McClure’s magazine had already built a very reasonably sized circulation through popular fiction and historical representation. Ida Tarbell, the most popular reporter of the magazine, investigated Standard Oil originally as a way of honoring this great American business. However, Tarbell started to discover the unhappiness of the workers. She decided to research more deeply into the Standard Oil Company. Her research provided her with the story of a company whose ideas were based on “primary privileges.” These primary privileges allowed the company to operate under special permission, but more importantly operate immorally. This investigation was eventually printed in 1902 and is now considered the work that started the muckraking era (Reiger 121-125).

Besides writing her “History of the Standard Oil Company,” Ida Tarbell wrote many other muckraking works. She followed the Standard Oil Company saga to write two articles on how the company affected Kansas and two articles on Rockefeller himself. Tarbell eventually left McClure’s magazine because of a disagreement in business policy and formed the American with other former members of the McClure’s staff. During her career at the American, Tarbell published many articles including “How Chicago is Finding Herself;” “Hunt for a Money Trust;” “Roosevelt vs. Rockefeller” and “The Mysteries and Cruelties of the Tariff.” In this tariff article, from 1910 to 1911, Tarbell challenged the tariff legislation. In a series of seven articles she wrote of the strong connection between the tariff legislation and big business. She also showed that the tariff legislation gave no protection to the laborer and hinted that it had no concern for the laborer at all (Reiger 125, 144-145,155-156).

Another notable muckraker was Ray S. Baker. Like Tarbell, Baker started out his muckraking career writing for McClure’s magazine. Between the years of 1903 and 1906, Baker wrote articles including “How Railroads Make Public Opinion,” “The Railroad Rate,” and “Railroads on Trial.” These articles discussed the use of rebates, the treatment of private cars, favoritism in rate making, creating of public opinion and the destruction of industries by railway consolidation and rate discrimination. Again like Tarbell, Baker left the McClure’s staff and joined the American magazine company. During his employment at the American, Baker focused on the discrimination of the “Negro” and his problem with religion. Some articles between 1907 and 1909 were “Following the Color Line” and “The Negro’s Struggle for Survival in the North,” and “The Godlessness of New York” and “The Spiritual Unrest.” Baker in his writings was not primarily critical of American life.
He described both the good and the bad as he saw them, fully confident that in the end the good would prevail. It is his opinion that the muckraking movement was, for the most part, merely a special development of journalism in response to a special need, and he believes that the movement derived its strength from the fact that the muckrakers did not attempt to prescribe remedies for the evils they depicted (Reiger 156-157).


An equally notable muckraker was Lincoln Steffens. Steffens, like the other two previously mentioned, worked at McClure’s and then left for the American. Steffens, from 1903 to 1905 at McClure’s, published articles discussing the shameless cities and the corruption in state politics. His articles included “Philadelphia: Corrupt and Contented,” “Rhode Island: A State for Sale,” “New Jersey: A Traitor State,” “Enemies of the Republic” and many more. His articles portrayed a vast variety of corrupt and immoral acts including prostitution, bribery, voting fraud and numerous others. For the American, between 1906 and 1907, he wrote “Breaking into San Francisco,” “The Mote and the Beam” and “Hearst, the Man of Mystery.” In his Hearst article, Steffens wrote about newspaper owner William Randolph Hearst and blamed the times rather than the man for yellow journalism evils (Hearst was often singled out for attack.) After about three years, Steffens joined the magazine known as Everybody’s. Between 1908 and 1910, he wrote “It: An Exposition of the Sovereign Political Power of Organized Business” and “RooseveltTaftLaFollette” and spoke against the federal government. One article of Steffens included his findings that in some instances, the President “bribed” congressmen with appointments to vote for the people’s measures (Reiger 59-60, 83, 108-109, 174-175).
Probably one of the most famous of all muckrakers was Upton Sinclair.

The power of the kings of animal food was supreme, gradiose and feudal, and sad to relate, like many earlier dynasts they abused itIt remained for Mr. Upton Sinclair to arouse all the country and galvanize a Presidentby his pathetic account of the stockyard laborer, who fell into a vat and involuntarily became preserved calf’s foot jelly or potted beef. This was undoubtedly one of those splendid poetic exaggerations which become immortal and stir men’s minds forever. Such things did not happen often, of course yet the tale, told in Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, published in 1904, seemed to be the first blow which actually shook the thrones of the monarchs of meat (Josephson 287).
Sinclair submitted articles to many different magazines between 1903 and 1908, including the Independent, Collier’s, Everybody’s, Cosmopolitan and passages from his novel, The Metropolis to the American. Many of his articles like “Is Chicago Meat Clean?” and his two popular novels, dealt with the animal food industry. He wrote of the gravely mistreated animals, workers and food production. Also, he conveyed to the public the idea of the corrupt boss who had almost unlimited power by having his connections with government.

Many other muckrakers existed besides the ones mentioned so far. Thomas Lawson, who wrote for Everybody’s magazine from 1905 to 1908, his most famous article being “Frenzied Finance” showed a bitter contempt for popular democracy. David Graham Philips, who wrote for the Cosmopolitan from 1905 to 1906 produced the article “The Treason of the Senate” which was basically a series of attacks on different Senators. Charles Edward Russel, who wrote for the Cosmopolitan, Hampton’s, and Pearson’s commented on the innumerable accidents of the railroad and the fact of churches taking money from tenements that were a disgrace to the city in articles like “The Railroad Revolution” and “Where Did You Get It, Gentlemen?” These as well as many others were titled muckrakers (Hofstadter 193).

Although the muckraking era is considered to span from about 1902 to 1912, some muckraking magazines and muckrakers worked on. Despite losing interest because of war events and change of values, Pearson’s magazine continued to write on. Also, Upton Sinclair continued muckraking at least until the mid-1930s. In 1924, he produced an essay entitled “The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities.” Here, Sinclair spoke of his problems with land speculation. He noticed the land speculator becoming a parasite. The speculator invested money in the land’s potential value instead of investing money to improve it. Also, as the value of the land increased, farmers could not afford to pay their mortgage interests and the farmers became “serfs” to pay off the interest (Sinclair).

Although muckraking attacked every corner and left no corrupt businessman or politician feeling completely safe, it did not enjoy too much direct success. However, indirectly, it was one of the most powerful journalistic movements of our history. The total circulation of the ten muckraking magazines reached over three million. Also, Upton Siclair’s novels The Brass Check and The Jungle went over the hundred thousand mark by 1932. A new political movement of reformed capitalism was undergone as the muckraking era pounded out its grievances. Most importantly though, people, partly because of the information which muckrakers revealed, partly because of the visions of better things which reformers brought forth, and partly because of horrid personal experiences, began to regard big business as an enemy rather than a friend (Reiger 194-196).

Works Cited
Hofstadter, Richard. The Age of Reform. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972.


Josephson, Matthew. The Robber Barons. San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1962.


Reiger, C. C. The Era of the Muckrakers. Massachusetts: Peter Smith, 1957.


Sinclair, Upton. “The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities.” Upton Sinclair. 1924. (17 Dec. 1999)

Managing The Managers

MANAGING THE MANAGERS: JAPANESE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE USA
The article reviews one of the greatest difficulties that Japanese multinational companies face, that is integration of its subplants in other countries, where not just management is viewed as different, but also the general running of the “mother” company’s, not to mention the cultural changes which may be faced when atempting to integrate into another country.


The article reviewed attempts to do two things. Firstly, the authors explore the management self so as to give reasoning into the two different managing styles of the United States of America and that of infamous Japanese management. Secondly, the authors report their research on management self-conception and style in Japanese owned factories or ‘transplants’ in the United States.


The article is a summary of a large Japanese multinational company’s intergration into the United States. This multinational opened 3 transplants in the same region of the United States. One of the transplants (Honshu manufacturing, which incidently seems to hold strategic significance as concluded by the massive capital investment of $300M) has a Japanese General Manager. The second, Honshu assembly holds and American born and raised General Manager. The third transplant is of an intereting nature as this is a Hybrid of Japanese and American management.


The article begins with the facts involved when a firm of a more than a modest size is doing business in a foreign environment. It outlines the difficulties and failures that could be encountered when integration is involved. The article continues to inform us on how the article will be presented and the goals of the study at hand. The article is divided into 8 separate but relevant sections, these are:
Introduction which talks about the methods used in the study and gives a brief rundown of the subject of Japanese and American management.


Management in the Japanese transplants which talks a lot about previous surveys already concluded of which the nature is the same as the subject at hand. This subsection of the article also provides us with a history of the subject, as far back as 1976 . This section gives case example of previous studies made within the field of Japanese management and integration by Japanese multinationals.
Mediating the selves. This section enables us to see what the Japanese managers thought of the American management style and likewise, what the American managers thought of the Japanese managerial system. Primary conclusion of the interviews enabled us to see that each side was very aware hat they were managing side by side with a foreign management ethos. Furthermore, the meanings each side attributed to various management practises – meetings, plannings, everyday communication, differed dramatically and uncomfortably . From the interviews conducted , four variables were believed to have significant effect on the management style of the managers, and these variables were critical in shaping management styles in the three electronic plants. These four variables are: the initial culture established by the parent company, the level of budgetary control exercised by the home office, the role and influence of the Japanese managerial assigness in the day to day management of the transplants, and the country of origin of the transplants general manager.
Japanese-Dominant Transplant. Due to the large investment made by the parent company into this transplant, it is not surprise that Honshu manufacturing holds a very strong Japanese managerial presence. Upon start of production, the transplant had seventy-one Japanese assignees. Four years down the track, this number dropped to thirty-one, this by no means meant a weaker Japanese managerial system as of these thirty-one employees, ten of them held key managerial positions including General Manager and director of manufacturing. The reasons for this are considerably understanding as this was the first factory of its kind to be built by Honshu Corporation outside Japan. The authors noted from their interview that the control exerted by the Japanese managers was quite noticeable, as an American manager hired during the facilities building stage noted that the Japanese engineers were doing all the tasks and that he was just left to watching, without ask for opinion or decision.

The General manager of Honshu manufacturing was senior vice president of Honshu manufacturing’s US operation. He was given a lot of freedom over decisions without hindrance from the parent company. This is what led to this particular transplant’s more autonomous running, and the very Japanese style way of management. One American manager demonstrates the differences in work culture by saying: “They are not taught to manage people. To them manage means you tell somebody something and your subordinate will go and take care of it”. By this, the american managers quickly gathered that their conception of ‘management’ was not recognized or accepted by their Japanese counterparts. The American managers at Honshu manufacturing that were interviewed were the ‘success stories’ , as they had adapted to the Japanese culture of work, by gaining the trust of the Japanese, a big cultural issue in Japanese society. This manager gained success partly because he had subordinated his American management self to the more patient Japanese style . Japanese managers believed that the American managers had done well to learn the Japanese system, but were somewhat let down due to their lack of communication and share of thoughts. Japanese managers believed this problem to be largely in part due the failure by Honshu manufacturing to socialize its American managers into the Japanese management culture. This led to a lack of involvement by American managers, which is in contradiction to the Japanese system of management, which believes in contribution of ideas for improvement and benefit. This factory worked well due to good adaptation to the Japanese system by American managers. It was however not clear whether the transfer was superficial or whether the properties of the Japanese system had been properly inducted.


American-dominant transplant. At Honshu assembly, the Japanese presence was kept to minimal, with most key positions being held by Americans. The highest and only position held by a Japanese expatriate was the post of deputy general manager. This left the American managers control of manufacturing, engineering and finance. Due to lack of Japanese presence, there was no felt pressure to adapt to the Japanese style of management. It is interesting to note the reversal of situation from that at Honshu manufacturing. By this is meant the lack of accommodation for communication and interaction with the Japanese. Some conflict of communications arose between the Japanese and the Americans, as the Japanese disclosed their feelings of exclusion. Japanese input later proved essential. The American manager executed a very traditional top-down management style with him in control. The American general manager’s attitude towards regular morning meetings reflected his belief in turfs, individual responsibility and his constant rejection of the Japanese diffusion of power within the organazition. He believed that the practise of having all managers at a daily meeting was a waste of time . Honshu assembly’s human resource manager, an American in a good position to note the induction of blue-collar workers into the company, described the Honshu assembly transplant as “failing to invest in the company”. Lack of communication, exclusion from meetings and no attempt to socialise workers and Japanese managers, management pratices were controlled by US norms, despite Japanese ownership.
Hybrid transplant. From studying management styles of the two previous company’s integrated in the USA. Honshu Corporation decided to adopt a more unique style of management. They aimed at creating a Hybrid US-Japanese type of management. The Japanese presence in this transplant was considerably strong, yet to balance this presence Honshu Corporation appointed a American General manager supported by an American director of human resource management and deputy director of manufacturing. This novel mix of management style required all American and Japanese managers to read the 1987 book by Peter Wickens, the road to Nissan:flexibility, quality and teamwork. The reason for this being located in the nature of the book as it outlined the problems faced by automotive giant Nissan when they began operating in a Western culture. Communication can be seen as a major key in the success of this management style. Socializing was seen as an important key to bridging the cultural gap between the workers. This point of view led to the “Stride-out”. This is consisted of part philosophy, part education and part fun. Like a automobile rally, the participants work in pairs and are required to find their way from start to finish via spatial checkpoints. This emphasizes on teamwork and socializing, consolidating the Kyushu manufacturing process of ‘look, conceive, strtegize, execute and inspect’. In contrast to Honshu’s assembly transplant who simply get a short speech, the blue-collar workers at Kyushu manufacturing learn of the company’s mission statement by enacting the ‘Stride out’. This Hybrid managerial style adapts a very social management style. Communication at Kyushu works both ways. This is seen as the factory encourages employees to participate in the quality improvement suggestions. The General manager believed that the transplant unlike Japanese style management tried to keep their meeting more ‘task-orientated’, but admitted Japanese style nemawasi shortened meeting by solving many difficult problems before the meeting. As a whole, the US and Japanese managers co-operated to develop a hybrid system that adopted some features from both cultures.


Conclusion. Both Japanese and American managers forced to submit to an alien management style to their own admit frustration, stress and alienation. The managerial leadership at two of the firms openly admitted that they believed cross-national socialization as important, and paid not much attention to conflicts arising as the two different concepts of self and social process collided.
When looking at the two management styles it is important to understand the cultural differences that make up the Japanese management style and the may I dare say ‘common’ Western management style. This is very stereotypical, but works as a majority. The table brings forward facts that may help to point out what type of management can be associated with each of these:
JAPANESEWESTERN
Major orientationFuture-OrientedPresent-oriented
Continuity of employmentLife-time employmentLay-off as necessary
Hierarchy in the companyPromotion by SenioritiesPromotion by competence
Utilisation of employeesNot fullyFully Utilised
Blue-collar / White collarSingle ClassDouble Class
External relationLong termShort term
Group relationshipKeiretsuOwnership
Basis of relationshipGive and takeMarket mechanism
Decision makingCollectiveIndividual
ResponsibilityCollectiveIndividual
Ambition of employeesPromotion within companyPromotion in other company
Dreams/ GoalsHappily working togetherEfficiently working together
Analogy (system)OrganicalMechanical
The Japanese management style is deductive and believes in insight and intuition. They believe in the power of logic and reasoning, they believe that which cant be seen or measured can exist, they do not break a whole down first into parts to analyze. Compare that with the Inductive American contructive reality belief that we believe in observing and measuring, the belief that that which cant be measured or seen does not exist, alongside the Joe Friday approach: Just the facts ma’am!
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Ufos and aliens on earth

UFOs and Aliens on Earth
If you had mentioned seeing a Unidentified Flying
Object (UFO), or spaceship from another planet 100 years
ago, you would probably be thought of as a raving lunatic.
If you had mentioned one 50 years ago, the case would be
thought about, but with much suspicion. Today, many people
would believe you, and, if you had evidence to prove it, the
government would take a very close interest in your case,
yet many people would call you an idiot. Despite all the
evidence that indicates UFO’s exist, there are still many
people who will not listen to any evidence, and the
government covers up evidence and alters news releases on
the subject.


The Roswell case is one of the best documented, and
most controversial UFO cases ever. In July of 1949, at a
small airforce base in Roswell, New Mexico,a small,
brightly glowing object was observed to crash land at about
11:30 P.M. There were many people who had seen the crash,
and they had described that it was “brighter, and fell much
slower than any meteors” they had ever seen.At St. Mary’s
Hospital in Roswell, two Catholic nuns, saw the crash,
directly north of them, and logged the crash to have
occurred on July 4, between 10:00 and 11:30 PM.
Southwest of the base, Corporal E. L. Pyles looked
to see what at first he thought was a shooting star, only it
seemed to be to large to be one. He testifies that the
crash happened about 11:00 PM also.


There were many Military officers in the area who
had seen the object as well. The object was appearing on
military radars for many days before the crash. Before the
crash, on July 1, all of the officers and technicians at the
base had been tracking an unidentified object on their
radars. Starting on July 2nd, Steve MacKenzie, who was
stationed at Roswell, was ordered to report to the White
Sands Proving Ground radar sites and report directly to the
brigadier general at the base. The Brigadier General’s
orders were to inform him of all the movements the object
made. At White Sands, there had been doubt as to whether
this object was a malfunction of radar equipment, or, if it
was in fact, real. So , the airforce had other radar sites
in Albuquerque and Roswell look at the area on their radars.
It was shown that they had, in fact, a real object.


During the evening of July 4, the object changed.
It was growing bigger, then shrinking back to it’s original
size, the blip was pulsating, then the blip grew quite
large, and disappeared from the screen. Because sites in
Albuquerque, White Sands and Roswell were tracking the
object, the airforce had a vague location about where it
crashed. The airforce then decided to launch a
comprehensive search the following morning.


The airforce, however, was the last to arrive at the
site. A group of archaeologists being led by Dr. W. Curry
Holden, had arrived earlier. One of the students recorded
the object as “a crashed wingless plane, with a flat
fuselage.” The archaeologists then left to inform local
authorities of an aircraft accident.


When the airforce arrived at the Roswell crash site,
there were two other people exploring, a man named Ragsdale
and a woman named Truelove. They had been collecting pieces
of metal from the site, tossing it into their jeep . But,
what they saw after that was much more significant. There
were bodies, lying about. There were several of them, about
four or five feet long. There were five in total, obviously
not human. There were three dead bodies, one in critical
condition, and one, apparently fine. They threw the debris
clear of their jeep when the airforce started driving up,
and got out of there as fast as they could because of fear
of being arrested. When the airforce arrived, they looked
around, and they saw the large craft in the side of the
mountain, partly buried, leaning at about a 30 degree angle,
with large pieces of debris scattered about. After the
airforce had searched and photographed the area, they began
cleaning up. The bodies were loaded into ambulances after
being put into body bags. The living creature was taken
into an ambulance also. The area was cleaned over the next
few days. “And when I say “cleaned”, I mean raking the area
to get all the pieces of debris and using industrial vacuum
cleaners to take care of the rest.”A little later, the
airforce located a field that the UFO had apparently flown
over as it crashed. The field had strange debris scattered
all over. A man called Brazel owned the property, and, the
airforce then allegedly kidnapped him for three days. They
also rounded up the archaeologists, and later, tracked down
Ragsdale and Truelove, who drove off as the airforce
arrived, Ragsdale and Truelove and swore them to secrecy.
After they took care of all the other details, they changed
the story from “FLYING SAUCER RECOVERED IN ROSWELL!” which
was submitted by an airforce officer, not a civilian, after
the crash to, “WEATHER BALLOON CRASH IN ROSWELL!” This
story doesn’t hold up well though. After all the reports
were turned in, and all the witnesses had been interviewed,
it didn’t look like the airforce could support baloon story.
So, they have been changing their stories around, from a
weather balloon, to a crashed V2 rocket, to an experimental
aircraft. As recent as June of 1995, the airforce
officially announced that it was in fact a balloon lofted to
view Russian weapon test sites. But, that wouldn’t explain
the bizarre debris, a foil that would re-shape itself
after being bent, and the pieces of metal that would not
melt under any temperature. Nor would it explain the Aliens
themselves. So, none of these explanations could hold
water. The only possibilities are that it was a early US
spacecraft, or, a UFO. And the UFO , for the first time
ever, is the only explanation that makes sense.


The aliens of the Roswell case are the classic
Grey’s. They are short, 3.5 feet tall, slit mouth, and
large oval eyes. They are grey in color and have a very
hostile disposition towards humans. There is no known
record of what happened to the living alien. The last he
was seen, was walking under his own power into the military
hospital (Not the St. Mary’s hospital). In the hospital
there are reports of some Medics from Washington preforming
an autopsy. The alien that was autopsied gave off a
tremendous stench, that caused the doctors to vacate the
room. The bodies were then loaded onto planes, and no one
knows where they went, because of the great scheme the
airforce had to hide the bodies destination. The debris
from the crash site, and the debris in the field, was also
loaded up and taken to different places around the country.


There are three main types of aliens that are said
to visit Earth. There are many other species that have been
reported, but these incidents are to sporadic and
unsupported to believe. The first type of alien are called
the Greys, short, militaristic aliens with no apparent
emotion. They can take a humans life with no apparent
regard for that individual. They are between 3.5 – 4.5 feet
tall, and are totally grey with a slit mouth and oval eyes.
They focus mainly on the study of other lifeforms, and
genetic engineering. Finally, they are a completely cloned
race, which is dying because their DNA is harmed after each
cloning. They may be creating a mix-breed of humans and
themselves in order to create a better race than both.
(David House, 1)
The second type are called The Reptilians. They are
said to be the masters of the Greys. The Reptilians are
said to be travelling to Earth on an asteroid where 30
million of them survive. Though that is unbelievable, if
this was true, these aliens would arrive sometime in the
next couple years. They resemble large, erect alligators.
They should also be considered hostile, because their
technology is so advanced when compared to ours, and they
seem to consider us a lower forms of life. (David House, 2)
Finally, there are aliens which resemble a mixbreed
of humans and Greys. They are the least likely of alien
species to exist, which is unfortunate, because they are the
friendliest. They are the mix-breed of Humans and Greys
that the Greys are creating. Why they have their own
civilization would be a mystery if being a clone is true.
The creatures have our advanced senses, while they have the
Greys advanced brain. (David House, 3)
Many people have different beliefs about UFOs and
the aliens within them. Some people say, “Hey, if there ARE
other advanced civilizations out there, WHERE are they?”
There are many different beliefs people have today. Some
people flatly disbelieve that there are planets orbiting the
stars that are in the Milky Way. This is false, as there
has been a recent discovery of at least three planets
orbiting a nearby star. Also, the Hubble telescope has
seen, what is thought to be the birth of a starsystem. The
star is surrounded by a large disk of black substance, which
proves the theory of how solar systems are formed. But,
some people think there is only one civilization in a
galaxy. The civilization in their galaxy can not leave
their own galaxy, as that would be intruding on another
civilizations “Holy Land”. There is only the smallest
chance of that, as there are more than THREE TRILLION stars
in the Milky Way galaxy. More believable would be that
there are other civilizations out in space, only they
are flying around, ignoring us, as they have no use for a
civilization that is as far ahead of us as we are compared
to ants. No civilization that advanced, would most likely
not be interested in humans and their little lives. Again,
another explanation would be they used some kind of drug
and hibernation method that would keep that person alive,
happy, and able to go wherever that individual wanted to.
There could actually be millions of these happy little
sleepers hiding on a few planets out there.


Why was there such a flurry of UFO sightings just
after the nuclear weapon was exploded in Hiroshima and
Nagasaki? Perhaps they just began to fear what we were
doing to ourselves. The UFOs began to hover over weapon
test sites. The Roswell craft flew over the test site in
Nevada for several days, where the first nuclear weapon was
detonated. The aliens have allegedly abducted many people
since then, performing bizarre tests on them. If it is true
that they are depending on us for genetic cross-breeding to
save their species, then it would be understandable that
they show so much interest.


If these aliens are so interested in genetics of our
species, why didn’t they come here before the 1940’s? Well,
that’s not true. There have been reports of aliens here
before the 1940’s. Actually, a long time before. At about
the 11th century, a diary of a young woman was found that
described a red, elongated object that brutally attacked
their small town, killing dozens and kidnapping many more.
The entire town was burned afterwards, and very few
survived. It is very unlikely that someone would make up a
story like this, especially in the 11th century. So we must
spectulate about that event. It could have been anything
from an alien slavery ship, to a meteorite, to a crashing
UFO. But, it would most likely be the slavery ship because
it “Killed and kidnapped” people from the village. A
meteorite has never killed a person in all of history, not
even the comet that leveled 55 square miles of forest in
Russia. As for a crashing spacecraft, this woman described
a “fire beam” and “terrible devils killing and taking
people”. I have been convinced that there was some kind
of alien ship looking for slaves, or perhaps they were
starving and we were the only abundant source of food they
could utilize.


The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
program is an operation set up by the government, which not
only sends “Easy to interpret information about us humans,
like the location of our home world, population of the
Earth, and little useful things like that for anyone
listening could hear” but also listens with some of the
largest satellite dishes in the world. So far, they have
discovered no evidence of an advanced civilization. Not
that they are telling about anyway. SETI has taught us many
things about strange types of stars, and possibly even black
holes by listening to the radio waves. It is also said that
SETI is merely a fake little operation set up by the
government to try to convince people they are looking, but
there’s nothing out there. There are many, many people who
claim to have seen UFOs and the aliens within these craft.
While most of these are proven hoaxes, and many more
unsubstantiated, there are enough sightings that are
investigated, and remain mysteries. To say that there
aren’t
UFOs is impossible to prove, short of parading onto Larry
King Live with a “One eyed, one horned, flying purple people
eater”. The government has repeatedly denied the existence
of UFOs for years, but, all the investigations that they
have staged seem to indicate that the US military, at least,
takes UFOs very seriously.

Play

The street crossing between 14th street and 15th ave. Holden bumps into Eminem.

Holden: (stuttering) Um….um I, I am sorry mister.

Eminem: See normally I would beat you up but you seem like a nice guy so its ok….no problem.

Eminem begins to leave. Holden stops him and asks.

Holden: Umm wait a second… um would you like to get a drink or something?
Eminem: Ok that sounds good I haven’t had a drink in like 2 hours.

Holden: Wow that sounds good ill meet you at the “Boob Room.” Its a bar on the corner of 12th street and 6th ave.

Eminem: See you later “dawg” peace out home boy. ill get up with you later son. word to you moms.

Holden: Bye I guess (mumbling under his breath) what in gods name was that.

Holden then proceeds to walk to the hotel he was staying in. When he arrive to the hotel he sees his old friend Lennie. He’s thinking to himself he hasn’t see this guy in like 5 years. The last time he seen him he was getting taken away in a cop car because he broke some woman’s neck. He decides to go over an say hi.

Holden: Hey Lennie I haven’t seen out in a long time.

Holden: Yup its me.. so how you doing?
Lennie: I am doing good I just got out of jail.

Holden: There is something different about you.

Lennie: Yup I am no longer retarded. I got beat so many times in jail the retarded ness must have got knocked out of me. Isn’t that something.

Lennie: Sorry but I have to go maybe ill see you later.

Holden: How bout you meet me and this guy I met today at the “Boob Room”?.
Holden: About 8. do you know where it is?
Holden then goes up to his room and takes a little nap. He wakes up about 7 and starts to get ready. he takes a shower and shaves and gets dressed. He leaves about 7:45 and walks to the bar. As he arrives he sees his new found friend Eminem.

Holden: (a little confused by Eminem slang) Um I am ok what about you?
Eminem: Chillin Chillin son (pause) lets go.

They both go into the bar. They both head over the bartender and ask for their drinks.

Holden: (to bartender) Um ill have a scotch and soda please.

Bartender: Ok (to Eminem) and what can I get you sir?
Eminem: Ill have a bottle of “Crystal”.

While they were waiting for their drinks Holden turns around and sees Lennie. Holden waves to Lennie and tell him to come over. Holden introduces Lennie to Eminem.

Holden: (introducing them to each other) Lennie this is Eminem. Eminem this is Lennie.

Eminem: What up son? and you guys can call me Marshall (to Lennie) so what you going to have to drink?
Lennie: He simply replies the hardest stuff you got.

After a few drinks they are all drunk. Marshall begins to tell Lennie and Holden about his life.
Eminem: I don’t feel good.. I feel like that time I smoked too much weed and passed out in Detroit. but its all good.

(Lennie and Holden both ask) Are you ok?
Eminem: Yea ill be fine. This happens to me often.

Eminem: Yeah one time I got so drunk I got into a fight with my wife. I got all mad a stormed out of the house. I didn’t come home for almost a day.

Holden: Well one time a girl and her pimp beat me up.

Eminem both look at him and wonder y he said it so loud and y he was so proud. Finally Eminem asks how and why.

Lennie: Its a long story so just to make it short I broke some woman’s neck. I was put in jail, I just recently maid bail. there it is nice and short.

Lennie: (ashamed to say) Um I don’t remember. I Guess it happened in my home town.

Lennie: I don’t know. What about you where are you from?
Eminem: Kansas City, Missouri. I moved back and forth from there to Detroit quite a bit. then when I was 12 I moved to Detroit permanently.

Holden is just sitting there watching them talk not saying a word. He starts to get a little aggravated but doesn’t say anything.

Lennie: Yeah I moved around a lot too.

Eminem: (to bartender) Another round for me and my boys.

Holden: Ill be right back I don’t feel good I am going to the bathroom.

Eminem and Lennie sit there and talk and wait for Holden to return. After like 5 minutes Eminem decides to get up and stretch. While doing so he accidentally hits the guy sitting next to him.

Lennie: (to Eminem) Just apologize.
Eminem to drunk to know what’s going on gets up in this guys face and asks him if he wants to settle this outside.

the guy and Eminem start to walk outside when Eminem see the guys 2 friend following him Eminem turns to Lennie.
Eminem: (to the three guys) What the hell is your problem?
Eminem gets so mad he just lunges forward and punches the guy in him face. After the first blow the guys two friends jump in and start to help . Lennie quickly grabs both the guys and throws the against the wall. They both hit the floor. Lennie thinking they are both out cold turns to help Eminem. but to his surprise he see Eminem beating the living hell out of this guy. Then out of no where Lennie hears something, he turns around and sees one of the guys lunging toward him. Lennie grabs his neck and snaps it like a tooth pick. Eminem watching this asks Lennie.

Eminem: Oops, oops is that all you can say.

Then with out warning two cops come up behind the two men and toss them into a wall. and tell them to spread um. Lennie and Eminem are claming they didn’t do anything wrong. The cops don’t listen and proceed to throw them into the cop car. The cop car pulls away.
Holden comes out of the bathroom wondering where his to friends went. He looks around and doesn’t see them so decides to leave.

The next day Holden reads the paper. As he opens the paper he sees on the front cover his two friends. The headline reads “ two men are accused of manslaughter and murder in the first” Holden thinks to himself thank god i was sick.


Bibliography:

Amelia Earhart

Amelia Mary Earhart was born on July 24, 1897 in Atchison, Kansas. She was the
daughter of a railroad attorney and had a younger sister named Muriel. Amelia was a
tomboy and was always interested in learning. She was educated at Columbia University
and Harvard Summer School. She taught English to immigrant factory workers. During
World War I, Amelia was a volunteer in a Red Cross hospital.
Amelia heard of a woman pilot, Neta Snook, who gave flying lessons. She had her
first lesson on January 2, 1921. On July 24, 1921, Amelia bought her first plane, a
prototype of the Kinner airplane and named it “The Canary.”
In 1928, she accepted the invitation of the American pilots Wilmer Stultzman and
Louis Gordon to join them on a transatlantic flight, becoming the first woman to make the
crossing by air She described the flight in a book she wrote, 20 Hours. 40 Minutes. After
that flight, Amelia made a career of flying.

Aviation was a new concept and the industry looked for ways to improve its
image. In 1921, Amelia was appointed Assistant to the General Traffic Manager and
Transcontinental Air Transport (TWA) with a special responsibility of attracting women
passengers.

Amelia organized a cross-country air race for women pilots in 1929, the Los
Angeles to Cleveland Women’s Air Derby, later called the “Powder Puff Derby.” Amelia
placed third in this race. After the race, Amelia had a meeting in her hotel room in
Cleveland with other women pilots. She formed a women’s pilot organization called the
“Ninety-Nines” because of the ninety-nine applicants. She served as the organization’s
first president. Amelia continued to work for TWA and was writing regular articles for
Cosmopolitan and other magazines, and had speaking engagements in many cities across
the country.
In 1930, she broke several women’s speed records in her Lockheed Vega aircraft.
In 1931, she wrote a book about those exciting experiences called The Fun of It. By early
1932, no other person had successfully flown solo across the Atlantic Ocean since Charles
Lindbergh. Amelia decided she would be the first woman to fly solo over the Atlantic.
She would not duplicate Lindbergh’s course, but would fly from Harbour Grace,
Newfoundland and the British Isles would be her destination.
On May 20, 1932, exactly five years after the Lindbergh flight, Amelia’s modified
Lockheed Vega began the journey. Since she did not drink coffee or tea, she would keep
awake by using smelling salts. All she took with her to eat and drink on this trip was
water, soup, and tomato juice. Amelia broke several records on this flight. She was the
first woman to fly over the Atlantic Ocean solo, the only person to fly it twice, it was the
longest non-stop distance flown by a woman, and the flight set a record for crossing the
Atlantic in the shortest time.

When Amelia returned to New York after her famous flight, she was honored by a
ticker tape parade. President Roosevelt presented her with the Special Gold Medal from
the National Geographic Society. Honors of all kinds were given to Amelia, as well as
keys to many cities in the United States. The United States Congress awarded her with
the Distinguished Flying Cross. Amelia was voted as Woman of the Year which she
accepted on behalf of all women.

Amelia’s next venture would be a transpacific flight from Hawaii to California,
then on the Washington D.C. Ten pilots had already lost their lives attempting this
crossing. She departed Wheeler Field in Honolulu and landed in Oakland, California to a
cheering crowd of thousands. After this flight, Amelia was busy on the road almost
non-stop with her lecture tours. During this time, she accepted an appointment at Purdue
University in Indiana. She would be a consultant in the Department for the Study of
Careers for Women.

Later in 1935, Amelia began to make plans for an around the world flight. This
flight would be two major firsts. She would be the first woman to fly around the world
and she would travel the longest possible distance, 29,000 miles, following a route around
the equator. Frederick Noonan, a former Pan Am Airlines navigator was chosen as the
flight’s navigator because he was familiar with the Pacific area. The plane chosen for the
flight was the Lockheed Electra 10E. The first leg of their journey would be from
Oakland, California to Hawaii on March 17, 1935. In Hawaii, Amelia had an accident
during take-off from Luke Field near Pearl Harbor. A great deal of damage was done to
the plane.

On June 1, 1937, Amelia and Frederick Noonan left Miami, Florida to once again
begin their around the world flight. After many stops in South America, Africa, the India,
and Southeast Asia, they arrived at Lae, New Guinea on June 29. About 22,000 miles of
the journey had been completed and there were 7,000 miles more to go, all of them over
the Pacific Ocean. Photos taken at Lae show Amelia looking very tired and ill.

On July 2, 1937 at 00:00 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), Amelia and Frederick
took off from Lae with 1,000 gallons of fuel, allowing for 20-21 hours of flying time.
Their intended destination was Howland Island, a tiny piece of land a few miles long,
twenty feet high, and 2,556 miles away. The Coast Guard cutter Itasca was stationed near
Howland Island and was assigned to communicate with Amelia’s plane and guide her to
the island. Several short radio transmissions were received by the Itasca, but they were
unable to get a fix on her location because the radio contact had been too brief. At 19:30
GMT, almost twenty hours into the flight, the following transmission was received from
the Electra; “KHAQQ calling Itasca. We must be on you, but cannot see you…gas
running low…” . After six hours of trying to communicate with the Electra, all contact
was lost.

A search by the Navy and Coast Guard was organized and no physical evidence of
the Electra or of Amelia Earhart or Frederick Noonan was ever found. Over the years,
many unconfirmed sightings have been reported and there are many theories of their fate.
Some of those theories are that Amelia was a on a spy mission authorized by President
Roosevelt and was captured; that she purposely dove her aircraft into the Pacific; they
were captured by the Japanese, Noonan was executed and Earhart was forced to
broadcast to the American GI’s as “Tokyo Rose” during World War II; and another
theory is that Amelia lived for years on an island in the South Pacific with a native
fisherman. In 1961 it was thought that the bones of Earhart and Noonan had been found
on the island of Saipan, but they turned out to be those of Saipan natives. In 1992, a
search party reported finding remnants of the Electra at Nikumaroro, Kiribati, but those
claims were disputed by people who worked on Earhart’s plane. Researches believe that
the plane ran out of fuel and that Earhart and Noonan died at sea.

Amelia Earhart spent most of her lifetime establishing the permanent role of
women in aviation. She became an international heroine overnight as the first woman to
fly across the Atlantic Ocean. Amelia’s disappearance is still a mystery, but her enduring
legacy remains.


Book Reports

Decartes meditations

In Descartes Meditations he talks about many different things.Two things he talks about are his arguments on Dreams and what he calls the Evil Demon. Both of them have to do with deceiving the mind into believing in things that may be untrue.

The dream argument has to do with that we never truly know if we are dreaming or we are awake. Since there is no way for a person to tell if they are dreaming or not, a person realistically can not tell if anything they have ever experienced or is experiencing is real or just a mere dream. We decide what is real what we can sense; the problem is that your brain can trick your senses. Your dreams can make you feel like you are doing something, seeing something, or feeling any other sense. Now this fits right in with the Evil Demon argument. In the Evil Demon argument you are being tricked by an outside source. This outside source can do absolutely anything, it can control all of your senses and you have no power at all to stop this being. So if the being can control your senses nothing you sense, or believe is there, actually is there.
If either of these things is true have we truly ever done anything? What are we truly doing? Meanwhile I have written this entire paper have I really written anything? For all I know is that I dreamed I writing this entire paper. Yes my senses tell me I typed this paper. I had to think of what to type and meanwhile I was typing the paper I was getting really bored, then my sense of hearing hears the theme song to the TV show The Simpsons. Was this fabulous TV show actually on, or was some superior being just playing with my mind? My feeling is that it really doesnt matter if it was real or I enjoyed the show and the half hour break I believed I had meanwhile I was watching it.


Bibliography:

Info on ww1

On the 28th July 1918 the great powers of Europe went to war in one of the most tragic and bloody events in all of history. The main wars on the western front were between Britain, the ruler of the worlds’ largest empire covering over a quarter of the full land mass, and a new country called Germany. The reason that Britain was in the war was because it was upholding some treaties it had made some years before such as the treaty of London which said that Britain would protect Belgium if she was ever invaded, which was the first thing that Germany did. Britain with France made another treaty and Russia this was called the Triple Entente it was the first military alliance made by Britain after it got out of splendid isolation. The armies first form of fighting was by using the cavalry but know with the invention of the machine guns these were quickly mowed down and in this way millions of people lost their lives. The only way for the armies to have some type of protection from the machine guns was to dig trenches. Someone even said that the most important weapon the soldiers had was their shovel. In the following years many waves of charges were made over the top of No Mans Land and nearly every single one was shot down and died. This type of warfare had never ever been seen by the army and some people claimed that it wasn’t war of strength it was a war of attrition, that is that the winner would be the person with more people and supplies. In between the trenches was an area called No Mans Land, this was an area in which if a person went in they would never come out of alive unless they were extremely lucky. After a while the Allies started producing films which showed the greatness of the Allies at war and so make more people want to join up. When people saw the amount of death and destruction there was it caused the exact opposite effect and the amount of people joining the army got lower and lower. Soon the British armies started putting up posters advertising the last push. This last push was going to take place at a place called Somme. This again made people want to join the battle and claim their moment of glory. The amount of firepower that was going to be used was enormous.

Camp, when you hear the word you think of hot dogs

, mashmellows, fires, and tents. Unfortunately during WWII the word camp triggered two words, internment, and concentration. Japanese Americans were placed in internment camps. Those who were deemed “not superior” by the Nazis were placed in concentration camps. Does this mean America was on the same level of Germany? Did the imprisoners even stop to think what the effects of their actions would be?The reason of imprisonment was different for both sides. Both Hitler and Roosevelt felt it was necessary to imprison those people at that time. Hitler desired a “superior” race. A pure, blonde haired, blue eyed, German race. Roosevelt needed to be sure all security secrets were safe. He did this by gathering the Japanese to were he could watch them.

Not only were the reasons of imprisonment different, but so were the methods of doing so. First, Hitler moved families from their homes and into a ghetto. Then, with little or no warning he would have the Gestapo raid the ghettos. Anyone who refused to comply with the Germans or resisted at all were shot on the spot. The luck, or unlucky who survived were either left for the next raid or taken to camps. In the other hemisphere Roosevelt was sending type of eviction letters. The letters were sent to Japanese Americans and stated that they must be ready to leave at a certain date. The Japanese Americans were also urged to sell their belongings before they left.

Once brought to the camps they both faced hardships. People of the concentration camps were forced to live in unsanitary conditions. They received little food and what they did get never kept them full. They were put to work in labor areas around the camp or at nearby factories. Despite their hard work they were not paid for what they did. perhaps it was the constant fear that they could be shot at any time that kept them going.

The camp conditions for the Japanese Americans were better than in concentration camps but not acceptable. They received food everyday but just enough to survive. They were able to work hard labor for low wages. They also received medical attention but just enough so epidemics wouldn’t spread. They were housed with other families, often in one room. The conditions of the camp were decent but not overly acceptable.

In both cases conditions could have been worse, as hard as that is to believe. Although the concentration camps were a higher extreme than the internment camps they both left a mark on history. No matter how big the mark left on history was it can’t be greater than the mark left on the hearts of the people that lived it first hand. People’s human rights were violated and should have never happened. Could there have been alternatives to the route the captors took? We are able to look back now and say that they were wrong but, you probably had to be there.

Kant And Utilitarianism

First of all I want to state the Kantian and the Utilitarian views butt heads on
this issue. The Kantian view is nonconsequential, that is as a matter of
principle with the consequences be damned. The Utilitarian view is consequential
with the results given as much consideration as possible. I will attempt to
explain what I mean through some examples. Some school systems hand out condoms
free of charge to their students. The Utilitarian view would be that this is a
good thing. They would state that by doing so they are stopping unwanted
pregnancies that in turn could cost society. This program would help stop the
spreading of diseases such as HIV, AIDS and syphilis. This also would lesson the
burden on society. Kantian view would not be in favor of this program because it
is considering the outcome of what might happen if the program were not in
place. They might feel it is the parents decision to make because it is their
job to act in good will of their family and not the school systems. Another
topic under much debate would be assisted suicide. The Kantian view is totally
opposed to this. It is just wrong to kill someone. One cannot kill another
person out of good will. If you were to apply this to the Universal Law it would
not hold true and there for it is wrong. On the other hand, the Utilitarian view
would be open to this concept. How could we allow one to suffer knowing they are
going to die in the end anyway? Would it be wrong to stop the suffering? How can
one seek the greatest amount of happiness if they are suffering and are
basically condemned to die? By assisting this individual we are also helping out
his family by limiting their grief. We are also helping out society by freeing
up a bed in the hospital for those individuals that could be healed and go on to
lead a happy life. It could also save money if the person does not have
insurance. The last example I want to use is the needle exchange program. This
is where drug users can exchange dirty needles for clean ones. This program also
stops the spreading of diseases such as HIV and AIDS. The Utilitarian would also
state that is lessons the burden on society. Drug users are also associated to
crime and when they come into exchange needles help may be provided to get them
off drugs and there fore lesson the crime rate and bring more happiness to
society. The Kantian view would not be in favor of this program because it is
considering the consequences of what would happen if community doesnt help.


They would state that drug use is not good will and not at all duty. If a drug
user is breaking the law by using drugs and needles they should be punished.


This punishment is not to be a deterrent but rather what is right because one
breaks the law. I Think the Utilitarian view is better than the Kantian view
because it does consider the outcomes of the event. Though I am not wholly sold
on their concept. The Kantian view does not address the problem it just condemns
it. In the world today we all know what happens when a person breaks the law and
so do the criminals yet; they still break the law. When someone is addicted to a
drug it is out of their control to help themselves and society as a whole should
step in and help. Their does come a time when you can help only so much and it
is up to the individual to correct their own wrong but not in all circumstances.


I think the best approach would be a happy medium between both views.