1          
Write An Essay  On The Importance Of Monitoring Fungal

Infection In The Clinical
Environment.

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2          
The first- line
anatomical barriers of defense are the skin and Mucosal surfaces, which protect
the Human body with an acidic ph, enzymes, mucus.  When this barriers are broken by Sirgery or
indwelling catheters, radiotherapy, burns or chemotherapy, fungal agents can
reach the deep tissues. The clinical forms and severity and the disease
manifestations dispends on the host’s defenses and immune response.

IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING FUNGAL INFECTOR

v To
prevent infection in immune compromised patients, exposure to fungal spores
must be limited with high efficiency particulate air filters and positive
pressure in the patient’s room and high risk should avoid contact with soil,
tap water and shower facilities.

v The
best approach to the optimal management of fungal infection is early detection
and identification of causal agent so that appropriate treatment can be
initiated as soon as possible.

v The
Serum concentration of anti fungal should be monitored to record both the
efficacy and toxity of this drugs.

 

2.   MENTION 3 CATEGORIES OF ANTI-NEOPLASM AGENT
WITH NAMED EXAMPLES. DISCUSS BRIEFLY THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF 1 EXAMPLE IN
EACH CATEGORY.

A.    Three Categories Of Anti-Neoplasm Agents
With Examples

1          
Alkylation Agents

 

(a)  Netrogen Mustard:  Melphalan, Cyclophosphamicle

(b) Platinum coarchination complexes:
Ciplatin

(2) Antimetabolites

(a) Folate Antagonists: Methotrexate

(b) Purine Antagonist

(3) Hormones:

(a) Corticcosteroids: Prednisone,
Dexamethasone

(b) Antiestrogens:  Tomoxifen

 

MECHNISM OF ACTION OF MEPHALAN

Mephalan
alkylates DNA at the N7 position of guanine and induces DNA interstrand
cross-linkages resulting in the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and
cytotoxicity against both dividing and non-in dividing tumor cells.

 

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF METHOTREXATE

Methotrexate
is an anti-methabolite  of the antipolate
type.  It competitively inhibits
dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme that participates in the
tetrahydrofolate synthesis. The affinity of methotrexate for DHFR is about
1000-fold that of folate. DHFR catalyses the conversion of dihydrofolate to the
active tetrahydrofolate.  Foli acid is
needed for the de novo synthesis of the nucleoside thymidine, required for DNA
Synthesis. Also, folate is essentialfor purine and pyrimidine base biosynthesis,
so synthesis will be inhibited. Methotrexate, therefore, inhibit the synthesis
of DNA,RNA thymidylates and proteins.

 

 

 

 

 

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF PREANISONE

The
mechanism of glucocorticoid  action in
reduction of serum calcium are thought to be cytolitic effects on lymphoid
cells, decreased lymphocyte secretion, and inhibition of vitamin D action on
calcium metabolism.

3 Which of the classes of anti-fungal agents will
you consider to be idea, why or why not . An anti-fungal agent is a drug that selectively
eliminates fungal pathogens from a host with minimal toxicity to the host.

 

Amphotericin B is a polyene anti-fungal agents for
treatment of life – threatening mycoses and for most other mycoses. It was
discovered by Gold in 1956, it can truly be said to represent a goal standard.
It is broad spectrum of activity includes most of the medically important
moulcles and yeast, including dimorphic pathogens such as coccidiodes immitis,
Histoplasma capsulatum.

 

THE WHY: It is the drug of choice intreating most
opportunistic myoses cause by fungi such as candida species. I solely prefer
Amphtotericin B to others because resistance to this agent is rare.

 

THE WHY NOT: 
The drug must be administered intravenously because of numerous effects,
ranging from phlebitis at the infusion site and chills to renal toxicity

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