1.     
 INTRODUCTION:

1.1 Definition
of pesticide:

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                        A
chemical or biological substance, intended to eradicate, controlling all type
of pests, vectors causing disease to human beings or animals and undesirable of plants or animals species. Whereas
the pesticides derived from natural materials like plants, bacteria, and mineral
deposits are called bio-pesticides (ICAR, 2009). And some pesticides derived
from chemicals are called synthetic pesticides, while synthetic pesticides are
toxins and posture long duration hazards to the environment and human beings
through their perseverance in nature and animals body tissue.

            Chemical
insecticides consists of organochlorines (Ex: DDT,) are disrupting the Na/K
balance of the nerve fibers. These all are bioaccumulates, while organophosphates
and carbamates are inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase enzyme allowing
acetylcholine causes symptoms like paralysis/ weakness the insect’s body. Organophosphates
are toxic to vertebrates. While carbamates
are less toxic as compare to organophosphates (9).

1.2
Chemical pesticides:

In the mid -1930s
to 1950s chemical pesticides intensely discoveries of major classes of synthetic pesticides like
carbamates, pyrethroids, organophosphates, and organochlorines are more
concentrations seriously beyond those required for control the target organism,
consequently the insect resistance power increased along with hazards effects
on humans, other non-targeted animals, atmospheric and water pollution (Guyot,
1994). WHO (The World Health Organization) estimates every year 200,000 people
are killed globally due to chemical pesticide poisoning (CAPE, 2009). Moreover
the utilization of synthetic chemicals has been restricted because of
carcinogenic, teratogenic and revealed high and acute residual toxicity. They
all imbalance the hormonal secretion and show spermatotoxicity, long
degradation period which caused in toxic residues in nutrition (Feng and Zheng,
2007; Pretty, 2009; Dubey et al., 2011; Khater, 2011). Later many chemicals
pesticides banned, more than 60 pesticides like, like, Endosulfan, DDT, endrin,
Methyl Bromide, Monocrotophos, Diazinon, Sodium Cyanide, Methyl Parathion were
used by Indian formers. Greater and continuous use of chemical pesticides, many
pests have developed resistance power to-words chemicals like organophosphates,
carbomates, pyrethroids and chlorinated hydrocarbons (Wu et al., 1984;
Ramakrishnan et al., 1984; Zhou, 1984; Armes et al., 1997;
Kranthi et al., 2001, 2002; Shi et al., 2003). About 2.5 million
tons of conventional pesticides used crops every year can cause worldwide
destruction due to high toxicity and non-biodegradability of pesticides,
causing pollution or continued on the crop surfaces distressing ecosystem and
public well-being. Conventional chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizers, seed
and plants growth have been implicated in polluting the soils and watercourses.
They have affected ample disruption to the ecosystems and have directed to
biodiversity loss (Van Balen et al., 2006). The unsystematic and
severe uses of toxic synthetic and broad
spectrum pesticides resulted
in the resurgence effects
on primary and secondary pest occurrences, increased
resistance power, insecticidal residue, lethal effects and health hazards on
humans and also damaged
environment and agriculture (Pimental et al.,
1992, Royand Mukhopadhyay 2010).  And it
also has reduced habitat loss of
micro- and macro flora and fauna of soil
and has also entered into the food chain thereby affecting all living beings (Edwards
and Thompson 1973; Tripathi and Sharma 2005; Frampton et al., 2006; Bezchlebova et
al., 2007). A synthetic pesticides effect ends with adverse effects and
harmful impacts on non-targeted animals, environmental pollution and ecological
imbalance (Zadoks and Waibel, 1999, Rao et
a l., 2005).

The serve use of synthetic pesticides led
to several problems directed to unexpected at the time of their outline: acute
and chronic poisoning of applicators, farm-workers, and even users; destruction
of fish, birds, and other wildlife; distraction of natural biological control
and pollination; wide-ranging groundwater contamination, hypothetically
threatening human and environmental health; and the development of resistance
to pesticides in pest populations (National Research Council 2000).

Near about 98% insecticides and about 95%
of herbicides were sprayed to target species (pests) including non-target
species. Pesticides are meant to regulate destructive pests such as insects,
nematodes, weeds, diseases etc. Though, extreme use of  synthetic pesticides leave residues in water
,soil and air then again  have adverse
effects on the non-target animals such as parasitoids, predators, pollinators
and wild faunas. This all adversely affected the ecological balance causing
pest species, development of resistance and environmental pollution.

In the
present scenario, the world and Indian population is growing rapidly. To feed
this fast rising population, there is a quick need to produce large amount of
food product. Meanwhile, there is a huge loss of agricultural crops, and food
grains due to the damage of insect pests in the field as well as in the
storeroom condition. Since India has
rich bio-diversity regions, it helps to prepare and use at local levels on
commercial lines (Chari et al, 1991).

It demands eco-friendly
alternatives are immediately required (Parmar, 1993). Whereas the adverse
effects of synthetic pesticide effects has provided the incentive for the
progress of bio-pesticides (botanical pesticides) may be one best alternative
to control insect pests and harmful effects of chemical pesticides. The
Inorganic chemical insecticides had been used mostly to control A. janata, but the progressively this is
becoming challenging due to development of resistance power in the insects.
Consequently, in current years there is increased prominence on developing more
effective yet sustainable and environmental safer approaches of pest control
(Schnepf and Crickmore, 1988).

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