2.1 How is self-esteem influenced?


research question relates to the definition, viewpoints on self-esteem, and the
ways it pertains to several behavioral influences.  First a quick recap of what self-esteem is
and how its difference to confidence .

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according Fowler (2017)  refers to how
you feel about yourself generally. That means how much esteem, positive regard
or self-love you have. Individuals with high self-esteem tend to perceive the
universe as a pretty friendly place. While at the other hand, according to Mr.
Fowler is confidence more  connected to
an action. It’s a trust that you can flourish in something (Fowler,
2017). Some psychologists tend mvdS1 call
it “domain specific”. Self-confidence refers to how you feel about your
abilities and can vary from situation to situation. (Self-Confidence , 2016)


a person  is developing , if he/she
receives  countless disapprovals with
very little approval, then they may develop a negative pattern of thinking.
Reliant on the kind of criticisms they are bombarded with, they may,
deliberately or involuntarily, say 
statements to themselves such as : “I am not good enough.” or  “I am not pretty enough.” or even “I can
never do that.”.

repetition can only strengthen the negative beliefs. What was only a statement
to initiate with becomes a main belief. The conduct then changes to match that
belief and a low self-esteem person is created. (Fowler, 2017)  mvdS2 And
obviously if you have the opposite in the growing process , you get the
opposite effect.


factors that influence self-esteem of a developing individual is his/her  surroundings and his/her performance .
Especially with the people he/she interacts with. Social interaction is an
important factor to take in consideration when referring to social media and
self-esteem. Because social interaction can increase or decrease a person’s
self-esteem, depending on the amount of time the person’s spends socially
active, depending on the feedback that person gets in return.  (Mary Polce-Lynch, 2001)

is also an important mvdS3 factor
to take in consideration when referring to social media and self-esteem. Social
media is mainly used by people make their 
expressions and experiences public, and hoping for a response. Some of
these experiences include accomplishments which usually include performances of
an individual. Some examples are trophies , prizes and sometimes even
diploma’s. (Strauss, 2007)


self-esteem is very important in the development of any child or individual. It
is also important to realize that too much self-esteem is also very
unpractical. This is simply because  the
person might have trouble accepting the fact that life / the universe isn’t
always pretty. Or some even become narcissist, which sometimes leads to
self-disappointment (Furnham, 2015)

So to summarizemvdS4 ,
isn’t the same as self-confidencemvdS5 .
SelfmvdS6 -esteem
is influenced by many factors, in which 
two were explained ( Performance & surroundingsmvdS7 )
. This was done to establish how these factors can influence the self-esteem.
Finally it was also mentioned that it is very unpractical to have too much


2.2 What
are the positive mvdS8 effects of social media on


Studying the positive effects and afterwards
the negative effects of social media  on
self-esteem , will make it clearer when 
making a conclusion. Which is why it was chosen  to study them separately instead of
describing them in one chapter.


study published in the journal “Computers
in Human Behavior”, suggests that most people who log on to Facebook every
day may be boosting their self-esteem in the process. While another conducted
survey indicate that people spend an average of 8-10 hours a day on social
media. So if they are boosting their self-esteem, they would be doing in an
intense way and on a daily bases. (Fowler,
2017), (Tsukayama, 2015).mvdS9 

Although many mvdS10 of
articles refer to social media being sometimes a self-esteem “deteriorater”,only
a few notice that it increases it indirectly. 
Here are 5 factors where social media helps us with our self-esteem.


to those in need

A  study showed that the finest way to increase
self-esteem is to disremember about you momentarily and reflect about others.
According to University of Michigan psychologists, Jennifer Crocker and Amy
Canevello, “Nothing makes you more proud of yourself than knowing that you are
making a positive difference in the lives of other peoplemvdS11 .” And it really makes you grateful
for the things that you have, when you realize someone else is living in a way
worse condition  than you are. (Roberts, 2012)

Loved Ones

The strong relation between Facebook usage and high school
acquaintances suggests how Social media assists in maintain relations as people
move from one offline community to another. An example of
moving from one offline community to another , is when people move to a
different city or country. mvdS12 Online interactions do not essentially
remove people from their offline world but may indeed be used to support  relations and keep people in contact, even
when circumstances change and   mvdS13 move them away from each other .
(Steinfield et al., 2008)



A study
done by the American Psychological Association concluded that “spending time friends
or families  has a healthy effect on
self-esteem that can be found in day-to-day variations. mvdS14 These results provide
strong evidence for the  concept of self-esteem as an affective monitor of social
inclusion. The finding that self-esteem is affected by both the quantity of
personal contact with less close friends and the subjective quality of
interactions with close family members, friends, and romantic partners points
to the simultaneous existence of two potentially complementary sociometer
systems aimed at securing the fundamental human need to belong.”  (Jaap J. A.
Denissen, 2008)

Hope and

A perfect example  of this
factor is when a Minnesota man created  a
graphics Interchange format of his brother’s recovery from a coma. The gif was
not only helping his brother , but was bringing hope to others in a similar
situation. Such a kind gesture impacts someone who is also struggling form the
same health problem immensely . She assisted as an inspiration to so many
others , mvdS15  that a cosmetics giant Cover Girl
took notice. Thirteen-year-old Talia Joy Castellano became the honorary face of
Cover Girl, and her bravery has fascinated approximately 40 million viewers to
her YouTube channel. (Ross, 2013)

As shown above , social media can also be used to motivate , inspire  and connect people in order to keep the
self-esteem high. So there is also good content 
to be found on social media. And allot mvdS16 of them tend to increase self-esteem
substantially, just
as some decrease it. But at the end of the day it all comes down to  how individuals use  social media mvdS17 to either help them , or hurt them

summarize there are several advantages to social media. And to relate this to
globalization and youth , three examples 
were chosen and explained. And the conclusion was that it’s all up to
how the individual uses social media.mvdS18 


 mvdS2do you leave that in blue?

 mvdS3an important

 mvdS4This is a too short summary

don’t understand. In the text before you haven’t mentioned self confidence, so
why do you call it ‘to summarize’?



comment: I hardly read your own ‘handwriting’. Or maybe I am wrong? try to
write it easier and simple. I have a hard time understanding what you write.
Mostly that is a sign that the focus is not yet right.

 mvdS9I don’t understand this comparisson.


 mvdS11I really don’t understand this. You start
in telling that it is negative, and than you show that it is possitive and the
explanation is too short to really understand what you mean.

 mvdS12what do you mean by this? explain!

 mvdS13be more specific.

 mvdS14please, try to write it more ‘down to
earth’. are these your onw words or copied from an article? make it easier to
read in state of too general or to vague. This is what I find of the whole



 mvdS17?? I don’t understand..

don’t not understand.

and why do rou relate this in the conclusion to
globalization? I think it is better to do that in the text and not at the end.