(i) Pitch Variation:

Pitch means highness or lowness of sound i.e. quality of sound. Wide variation in pitch should be made during a speech. This is essential and helps in catching the attention of the listener and maintaining the interest in the speech.

(ii) Speaking speed:

The speaking speed should neither be too fast nor be too slow. The speed should be such which ensures fluency. As a rule the easy parts of the message should be delivered at a brisk pace as it is likely to be understood easily. On the other hand, the difficult complicated, technical part of the message should be delivered at a slower pace.

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(iii) Pause:

Pause is an important aspect of speech; one cannot and should not go on speaking without pause. But pauses have to be at the right moment. A pause at the right moment can be very helpful in emphasizing the upcoming subject.

Where as an arbitrary pause or unnecessary frequent pauses may spoil the speech.

(iv) Variation in volume:

An efficient speaker varies his volume while delivering his speech. Volume means loudness of voice. Volume variation puts life into one’s speech. However the loudness of voice should be adjusted according to the size of the audience. While speaking one should be loud enough to be audible but not too loud to put the audience off.

(v) Non fluencies:

Speech is not always a continuous string of meaningful words. There are pauses scattered at intervals. These pauses are very often inserted with sounds or utterances like ‘ah’ ‘oh’ ‘uh’, ‘hum’ ‘you know’, ok etc.

These sound or utterances are called ‘Non fluencies.’ These non-fluencies if used carefully and sparingly add to the fluency of the speaker, gives him time to breathe or relax and makes the listener more alert and gets the message conveyed overtly or covertly.

2. Proper word stress:

Proper word stress is at most important in communication. A speaker can change the meaning by putting stress on a word here or a word there in the same sentence. For example, let us read the following series of statement, emphasizing the bold word in each:-

Did you go for a walk yesterday?

Did you go for a walk yesterday?

Did you go for a walk yesterday?

In each of the above statement the same group of words is used but the stress on different words gives it a different meaning every time it is spoken. Similarly we can change the meaning by stressing different parts of spoken words like Play (noun) Fly (noun) Play (verb) Fly (verb).

A good speaker should put stress on words or parts of words. One should also improve one’s word stress by listening the good speakers and participating in discussions.