2. Social and Cultural Development:
Today, tourism is recognised as a social phenomenon which causes several benefits to the society and culture, which are taken from the creative marketing of destinations to the tourist markets.
It has a profound effect upon the life of the individual as well as on society as a whole. It has main objectives of bringing mankind closer to different social values, cultural heritage and customs.
It is true that cultural relations help create an atmosphere of peace; born of reciprocal understanding of the spiritual uniqueness of each nation in the sense that cultural co-operation can result in the possibility of arriving at far reaching agreements in the economic and political spheres.
3. Tourism and Environment:
Tourism is called smokeless industry, which can be synonymous with the protection and conservation of the environment. The improvement and conservation of natural and man made tourist resources, contribute to tourist product and has no danger to the nation’s resources.
The scenic beauty, local culture, life styles, valleys, mountains are of great interest to visitors or tourists. The growth of tourism both domestic and international does less harm to the environment as compared to other industrial development.
However, tourism specifically international tourism has negative impact on the environment, but this impact is negligible. Tourism can become an instrument for beautification and improvement of the environment, if it is planned in a systematic manner.
4. Tourism Infrastructure:
Infrastructure is an essential component for the promotion of tourism in a systematic and scientific way. Tourist traffic and tourist receipt both in rupees and foreign currency are extremely based on adequate touristic infrastructure in a country.
Further, the image and resources of a country are built on the perception of infrastructure provision in the particular destination. Thus, no country can think about the image and to increase touristic inflow without the adequate provision of infrastructure facilities. Therefore, two interesting contradictions emerge when we take up the issue of infrastructure.
Tourism expands the space of tourist and in doing so, it brings into his orbit destinations which should be socially, culturally and economically different from his home environment. However, in many cases tourists are unable to cope with these differences.
Tourists make use of local resources, international airlines, hotels, tour operators, value system and other commodities which are meant for host community. This dilutes the economic and social benefits of a country.
However, if tourism is developed and planned by taking into consideration these vital factors, tourism infrastructure and services will not produce results which hamper the residents from meeting tourist’s basic needs and yet achieve the objectives of income, job opportunities and development of the areas. These two have an important impact on infrastructure development in the tourism business.
Tourism infrastructure is a comprehensive term which includes general infrastructure and superstructure. General infrastructure includes all forms of construction on and below ground, required by any inhabited area in extensive communication with the outside world and as a basis for extensive human activity within, such as highways, railway lines, power houses, communication network, water supply system, sewerage, hospitals, police lines, industries for productive goods and services essential for living and so on. It is the pre-requisite for accelerating the socio-economic growth of a country.
It is the secondary input for the tourism industry. On the other hand, touristic superstructure is the primary input and is essential for tourism development. It encompasses a wide range of facilities and services, such as, lodging, food and catering, historical sites, entertainment houses, shopping centers, transportation facilities, tourism organisations, human resources, sports, financial facilities, airports etc. In India superstructure facilities are provided by the private sector, tourism enterprises, central government, state government and local bodies.
The tourism product within a country is not a separate enclave. It is the amalgamation of various sectors of a nation such as, agriculture, religion, trade, health, mountain, land, education, forestry, manufacturing and settlement pattern. Thus, the relationship is not just only between buyers and sellers of travel, as tourism supply is a part of community lives.
This is because the tourist product and resident product are intermingled and overlapped, for example hotel, museum, wildlife sanctuaries, monuments, sports, religious places, entertainment and cultural centers and transportation etc.
Thus, the more a local community takes pride in the involvement of its community, the greater will be the strength of its tourism product. Infrastructure can be defined as the provisions, facilities and the policies, relationships, institutions that remove the barriers to free movement of people.
The development of new touristic infrastructure and improvement in the existing infrastructure are vitally significant in the developing countries like India. These developments may confer benefits upon the resident population by providing them with amenities and facilities which they will be enjoying.
Furthermore, the provisions for infrastructure may provide the basis for or serve as an encouragement for greater social and economic diversification. Government promotes and encourages various industrial enterprises to serve the needs of tourism and stimulate the economic activities.
The tourism industry requires or uses the existing infrastructure to achieve its objectives. The industry has today the multifarious benefits of being able to generate profits and create employment opportunities from the existing infrastructure and thus makes remarkable contribution to the growth of national economy.