ii. Government Departments:
In some countries government departments buy commodities, often on a long-term basis. For example a country may want the exporter to supply them with a certain quantity of rice, to be delivered at regular intervals over the next five years
iii. State Buying Organisations:
In the planned economies, particularly of Eastern Europe, all buying from abroad, is arranged by the central or state buying organisations. The exporter must sell to them and not to private companies. Barter deals or reciprocal trading are not uncommon – for example, one may supply sugar in return for machinery.
iv. Industrial Buyers:
Large industrial companies often buy directly from producers. For example, in the ship building industry a company may place a contract for the supply of so much timber or so much furnishing material. Similar contracts may be made with industrial buyers to supply them with raw materials, foodstuffs, metals or components.
Some wholesalers may be among the direct customers, though they are more likely to be indirect customers through the distributor. A wholesaler buying from the exporter does not have exclusive selling rights. But he may have a commanding position in a particular market and so, have no competition even though he has no exclusive rights.
vi. Large Retail Stores and Supermarkets:
Certain large department stores may also buy directly from the exporter. In some cases they may want exclusive rights. They can be the most important of the buyers who visit the country. Sometimes several in dependent stores join together voluntarily and send one buyer who buys for them all.
The central buying organisations of department store or supermarket multiples, or of other types of chain stores, are among the most important direct retail buyers.