5Th Generation (5G) of Mobile computing Muhmmad AsifDepartment of Computer Science, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore [email protected] Abstract:-  A Swiftly growing number of electronic devices which use internet e.g. mobiles, tablets etc. and voluminous data and higher data rate are pushing to reconsider the present era of the cellular mobile communication .4G generation wireless communication system have been implemented or are soon to be implemented in many countries but still 4G is not accommodated with some challenges, such as high energy consumption and spectrum crises. A designer of wireless system have been facing continuously growing need for high data rates and mobility new wireless applications .For these requirements the next or 5G cellular networks are expected to meet these requirements or need .Three unique features of 5G networks are: Ubiquitous connectivity  , very low latency and very high –speed data transfer.5G network will provide best architecture and technologies .In this paper will discuss “what will be done by 5G and how ?” and in this paper I will discuss these points, Identifying key challenges , and new technologies and also discussed proposed architectures as well as implementation issues  e.g. interference ,QOS , security –privacy ,Channel access and load balancing , hugely effect  the realization of 5G networks .Furthermore we will discuss Massive MIMO and NOMA technologies.Keywords:-Introduction:-    In future 50% billion mobile devices will connected with cellular network services by the end of year of 2020 .Continuous increasing number of user devices, data usage and need for a better quality of experience due to these enormous increase in data traffic, as compared to the year 2016 and 2017 and 4G technology is not enough for the challenges mentioned above .In Short words the growing of 3D device , data ,and data transfer rate encourages to implement of 5G networks .Three broad view  (I) User centric (by supplying 24 x 7  device connectivity ) smooth consumer experience and uninterrupted communication services (ii) Network-operator centric (by supplying an energy –efficient  , scalable ,uniformly-monitored  ,low –budget , programmable and secure communication infrastructure ) (iii) Service provider-centric (Transportation system , road-side service units , sensors and Mission critical tracking facilities provided by service provide centric).Hence three main features perceived by 5G network • Pervasive connectivity:-                     In upcoming period a large number of devise will connect pervasively with network system and supply an uninterrupted user experience and as well as user-centric view will be realized by ubiquitous connectivity.• Zero Latency:-                      Life-critical system and services with zero delay tolerance and real time application will support by 5G so it enlighten that 5G network will provide zero latency i.e. very minimum latency of order of millisecond and as well as service –provider –centric view will be realized by the zero latency .• High-speed Gigabit connection:-                        From high speed connection for fast data transmission and reception can be achieved by zero latency property which will provide Gigabits per second to machine’s and users.Focus is now going on upcoming 5G technology .A main features of 4G is its ability to provide high speed data rate up to 1 Gbits/ second on the downlink .However the ante on data rate will up by 5G technology .Coverage and experience are the main features .However industry views depends on data rates and efficiency with heavy weights such as Nokia Siemens Network and Qualcomm are seeking at technology which with cope with traffic growth of 1000 times.(Change from here ) Different wireless system are distinguish by multiple scheme  and that is a key from 1G to 4G  was used frequency division multiple access (TOMA ) and for 3G code-divine multiple access (CDMA) and for 4G are primary orthogonal multiple access (OMA) schemes.Howerver  the fast growth of mobile internet has propelled 1000-fold data traffic increase by 2020 for 5G. 5G needs to support massive connectivity of users or devices and divers services types to satisfy these requirement’s enhanced technologies are necessary .you can see picture of 4G and 5G in Fig 1.1             Fig 1.1 Difference between 4G and 5G networkScope of this paper:-In this paper I will review the importance and vision of the 5G network, we will discuss benefits, application proposed architectures, implementation issues, real demonstration and test beds. In this paper test beds, implementation issues and problems, affirmation, application proposed, Benefits and advantage of 5G network will discussed in the 1st section of the paper  .I would like to emphasize that there are some review works on 5G network by Nisha pan war , Shanta Sharma , Awadesh  kumar Singh , Jeffry G,Andrews  , Wan Choi , Woon Han Chin and some others to the best of our knowledge  my view and idea about 5G network is different as my concern with variety to architectures and discuss many deployment affairs technologies and technique’s in 5G networks along with application and real-tested manifestation  will say that my papers reader to see an overview about the generation of the cellular networks and many drawbacks of the current cellular networks in the next part. You can seed different generation in fig 1.2 there data transfer rate and implementation date. Figure 1.1 The generation of cellular network Draw backs of the traditional Cellular System:-                        Low latency and significant spectral efficiency are not achieved by 4G networks; they are not established enough to support huge number of connected devices.a) Co-Channel interference :-          Normally Tow different channels are used in Cellular network one as a transmission path for ma UE to BS called uplink and the other path is called reverse path called downlink, Setting of the two separate channel is not the efficient usage of the frequency band if both the channel work on same frequency i.e. a full duplex wireless radio, then a high level of co-channel interference in UL and DL of Co-Channel interference in UL and DL channels is a major issue in 4G network. It also prevents the networks densification i.e. the implementation of many BSs in a geographical area.b) Busy  data traffic:-         Some mobile application that sends heartbeat messages to their servers and necessity request for high speed of internet for short time. These types application and data transmission spend much more battery power of user accessions with growing of burstydata.The network and so all system crashed the network, So signaling mechanism is designed for all kind the traffic in the present networks, making great problem for busy traffic. c) No difference for indoor and outdoor users:-            Single BS installed near the center of the cell and communication with all UEs in the present cellular networks and UE are stay inside and outdoor for 80% to 20% of the time and Communication is not well efficient between indoor UE and an outdoor BS is not efficient in term of data transfer rate spectral efficiency and every efficiency due to the attenuation of signal passing through walls.d) Latency:-         The good candidate  BS are access by the UE In current Cellular network it will consume many hundreds of milliseconds and so 4G does not support the zero latency property .                  Challenges in 5G wireless communication Network:-In era of 5G network Communication that is absolutely right there have been good development  but there is still key challenges in deployment of 5G network in this section I will discuss some major challenges due to limited space .1. Data Rate and network capacity expansion with energy optimization:-             Those sending about additional BSs clinched alongside a Geographical area, utilization of those higher frequency bands what’s more connection change might help the organizablilty .Expansion billions of UEs high data rate , high volume of data.2. Optimizing Performance Matrices:-             Frequently characteriz3ed by contemplate only one or two performance metrics and abandon other matrices due to high complexity in the assessment of wireless communication network  For a excellent and fair evolution of 5G wireless systems and all others good performance matrices should be considered in This matrices include implementation complexity , QOS , delay , Spectral efficiency and much more , Trade-off between all performance matrices and this requires high complexity joint optimization rules and long simulation times .3. Scalability and flexibility :-                 In the future of mobile communication Scalability and flexibility will play very important role and most eminent features .Infrastructure and methodologies of cellular network must be designed to work in HetNets in upcoming era or period of world and in future much more huge number of user can request at same time for a set of services .So it is necessary 5G network should be much more powerful to meet with users requirements and demands n upcoming era of world.4. Multi-mode user terminals :-                  By means 0f 4G , it is must to developed a single user terminal that can manage and operate in separate wireless network and annihilated the design issues and problems such as restriction on the size of the device .5. Single Channel for both UL and Dl:-                  For transmitting and receiving signals full duplex wireless radio use only single channel at same time and frequency .Full duplex system gain best performance as having different UL and Dl channels and So increases link Capacity, Saves the cost and spectrum, So deployment of full duplex is no inconsequential and minor because now a radio has to used sophisticated protocols for the physical and the data link layers and apparatus to detach the effects of interference.6. Interferes   Management of CR Networks :-                How to reliably and sensible and practically maintain the mutual interference of CR and primary systems are big and serious problem in interference –tolerant CR network in 5G .Synchronizing the transmitting power is necessary for the CR system to coincide with other licensed systems .At CR receiver interfered cancelation techniques should also be implement to alleviate the interference at CR receivers and some other issues is that feedback mechanisms is very necessary to periodically tell the CR network about continuous  interferes –tolerant CR.7. Low latency and high reliability:-                  In real-time application low latency and high reliability are much more critical e.g. life safety system, cloud-based gaming, nuclear reactors, drones, sensors and connected transmission systems but that is difficult and challenging task to gain very low latency and reliable delivery of data over a big scale network without growing the infrastructure of network cost, as it requires the development of techniques providing fast connection fast handovers and high data transfer rate. 8. Security and Privacy of the networks and UEs                  With others problem there is one more big problem of security and privacy of networks in 5G networks for example a great number of new kinds of all-time connected devices may produce many types of attacks like impersonation , denial-of-services man  in the middle , replay and repudiation attacks and also transfer a high volume of data in very fast speed and safe and secure manners is difficult which save from malicious files to penetrate, So it is necessary network needs to e secure and requires fast-secure handoffs of UE’s Must change words from here 9. Network infrastructures and QOS support:-             The current non-IP and IP based systems are integrated and supplying QOS assurance for end-to-end packages that engage other many system is a challenge. 10. Billing and Charging:-             It is very difficult to accumulate and it is also difficult to control and accumulate the users account information from many other service suppliers and also users billing is also very tough task.11. Cyber Attacks on application layer:-           New features and updates will offer to the users but with these features but new problems with come like new bugs. 12. Spoofing and Jamming:-          Spoofing technique produce fake signals that send out the signals in that case GPS receives suppose that the signals comes from satellite and computes the false coordinates. This technique can be used by cyber-criminal, hackers and this technique is used for wrong purpose. When transmitter sends out signals at same frequency shift GPs signal then Jamming occurs in system.         1. Two-tier Architectures :-         For 5G networks many tow-tier architectures have been proposed in tow-tier MBS stay on the top-tier and SBS work under the instruction of MBS in there bottom tier .Different types of small cells covers by microcell For example microcell . microcell and  femtocells .And both of them share same frequency band .Coverage and services of a microcell is enhanced by small cell .2-tier architecture to multi-tier architecture is enchased by D2D communication and CRN –based communication Under the Cover of microcell , we confine ourselves on the deployment of small-cells . Benefits of the implementation of Small cells:-                       Reduce the size of the cell to increase the data rate that is the one solution for the higher date rates demand .By minimizing his size of the cell area spectral efficiency is increased by higher frequency reuse. While transmit power can be reduces such that the power lost thorough propagation will be lower and more importantly coverage can be improved by implementing small mobiles indoor where reception may not be fair and offloading traffic From macro cells when require. In current period this technique has only been made possible with advancement in hardware miniaturization and the corresponding reduction in cost and also makes changes the functional architecture of the access network allowed data and manage signals to tunnel through the internal and with internet connectivity implement smalls cells everywhere .Different flavors of small cells are available with low powered femtocells typical used in residential and enterprise deployment and much more power microcells used for wider outdoor coverage or filling in macro cell coverage holes .a) Efficient spectrum and High data rate use:-               The small physical distribution between SBS and UEs gains excellent indoor coverage and higher data rates and as well as that may causes to increase spectrum efficiency due to fewer UEs in direct communication with a MBS.b) Energy-saving:- –                                                                        Another benefit of small cells is much lower energy consumption of network by not involving MBs and of UEs (by allowing UEs to communicate at shorter range with low signaling overhead).c) Low budget :-     Operational management Cost is much lower than the cost of associated with MBS.d) On-Demand network capacity :-      The plug-and-play utility of small cells boosts.Disadvantages of small cells:-Not with standing innumerable famous advantages are discussed above but still there is some issues and difficulties such as deployment cost and operational trusty. The small cell need initial starting cost to the infrastructure but less than the cost belong with MBS .In frequent handoff operations, frequentauthentican is mandatory.