“A spectre is haunting Europe – the spectre of communism.”(Marx 1). These were the famous first words of a pamphlet created by Karl Marx. When he first created his pamphlet The Manifesto of the Communist Party, he had hoped that his idea of equality would be so massive that entire countries would use it, but it went above and beyond what he had hoped. Wars would be fought about it  and people would die fighting for and against it. He wanted equality between the middle class and the working class (Proletariat and Bourgeois, respectively) because of the many economic problems in European countries like England. His idea boomed, making him one of the most well-known, loved, hated, and respected men in history.Karl Marx (born in 1818) was raised in a Lutheran family. At age 18, he went to Bonn University in Western Germany to study law, like his father. In 1841, however, he left Bonn to go to Jena University in East Germany. He studied for a Phd. in Philosophy, and turned to materialism after rejecting Georg Hegel’s idea of idealism. One year later, he started work for the newspaper Rheinische Zeitung, later becoming editor. His work was short lived, however, because the newspaper was suppressed due to his demand for reform in both society and politics.In 1843, Karl Marx left Germany and moved to Paris, France, where he became a Socialism. At this period, he started reading the works of Philosophers such as Adam Smith, as well as many others. During this period, he wrote his first work The Poverty of Philosophy to attack Joseph Proudhon’s idea of individualistic radicalism. This was his first attempt at forming his own thoughts on the socialism. It was at this point that he chose to think differently, and, instead of trying to justify reform with the appeal to human rights, think up ideas for equality for the working class. After he formed his ideas, he joined the Communist League with his friend Friedrich Engels. With the help of Engels, he wrote the most famous of his works,  The Communist Manifesto, which clearly showed his ideas for social reform and of the struggle of the working class to achieve equality.

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