ABSTRACT

In
this competitive scenario organization both service and manufacturing sector
have to manage change in an effective way. Emotional Intelligence plays an
important role in helping the managers and employees to cope with this dynamic
change in the business environment. The need for emotional intelligence can
hardly be disputed. The employees are often confronted by twin problems of
intrapersonal adjustment and social adjustment. In this context, a study on
emotional intelligence is very significant. This study aims at analyzing the impact
emotional intelligence among employees of service sector on their performance.

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INTRODUCTION:

  Emotional intelligence influences employee
performance to a high extent employees at hotels, mostly play the role of
customer- service representatives who directly confront the customer, require
to exhibit a high level of emotional balance. 
Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term ‘Emotional Intelligence’
in 1990. Today Hotels are the most sought of places for businessmen and
organizations to conduct conferences and meetings. They build their
relationships and business through their hospitality, even individuals and
families consider hotels as the destination for conducting functions and
events. Hence a high customer orientation environment within a hotel has to be
maintained, and the employees need to be educated and trained to meet the high-end
needs.

                        Studies point out that emotionally
balanced employees are the only virtue for a hotel to successfully attract more
number of guest when all the other features are almost similar among other
hotel in the market. Hence, it is expected that the hotel employees at all the
levels have to have a smiling face (forcefully), be polite and welcome their
guests with warmth to make them feel at home. This requires a high level of
emotional intelligence among the hotel employees.

 

Ref.
1. Oxford English Dictionary

In this day
and age the economy is always growing, business volumes rising. We live in a
World where competition is always present and confrontations and battles at a
business level are all around us. Therefore management theories develop models
on “the rivalry of a company based on it’s human resources”, with the argument
that a company can achieve competitive advantages through creation and
protection that increases distinctive value. In this environment managers begin
to conclude that the motto is “not knowing how to do it, but yes increasing
it’s value”.

Emotional intelligence helps the employees to increase their emotional
self-awareness, emotional expression, creativity, increase tolerance, increase
trust and integrity, improve relations within and across the organization and
thereby increase the performance of each employee and the organization as a
whole. “emotional intelligence is one of the few key characteristics that gives
rise to strategic leaders in organizations”

            Emotional Intelligence(EI) is
defined by Goleman(1998), as the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and
those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotional well is as
and in our relational ship.  Success
actually depends on a set of emotional and social competencies that builds on
EI, in the same way that specific cognitive ability may be linked to general
intelligence and measured by the IQ Test.

            Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the
capacity or ability to perceive and manipulate emotional information without
necessarily understanding it and to understand and manage emotion without
necessarily perceiving feelings well or fully experiencing them. (Salovery and
Mayer, 1990;  Mayer and Salovery, 1997)1.

                       

1.       Mayer,
J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D.R. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional
Intelligence Test (MSCEIT): Users Manual. Toronto, ON: Multi Health Systems,
Inc. 160

2.       Gardner,
H (1993) Multiple Intelligence; The theory in practice, Newyork, NY; Basic
Books.

Performance is considered as a significant measure,
which is associated with the organizational outcomes and success. (Wall et al.,
2004). Performance is the number of individual effort spent on the job.
Performance describes the accomplishments by individuals, which pave way for
more profits and success of the enterprise. Measurement of performance can be
carried out according to objective and subjective criteria.

            Generally speaking, emotional
intelligence improves an individual’s social effectiveness. The higher the
emotional intelligence, the better the social relations.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The high emotionally intelligent individual, most
centrally, can better perceive emotions, use them in thought, understand their
meanings, and manage emotions, than others. Solving emotional problems likely
requires less cognitive effort for this individual. The high emotionally
intelligent person is drawn to occupations involving social interactions such
as teaching, customer care and counseling more so than to occupations involving
clerical or administrative tasks.

 

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso,
D. R. (2000a). Models of emotional intelligence., R.Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook
of intelligence. Cambridge,UK:CambridgeUniversity Press.

 RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

            A
careful investigation has been carried out for the selection of appropriate
tools, collection of data and analysis of data.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN

            The
present study is based on descriptive design. The objectives, the hypotheses
for empirical validation, the process of sample selection, statistical methods
for  data analysis and tools used for  measurements 
to obtain data are included.

3.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The present study aims to analyse the
impact of  emotional intelligence on the
performance of the employees .

·        
To find the
relationship among various dimensions of emotional intelligence and the
performance of employees.

3.5 HYPOTHESIS

·        
There is significant
association between overall Emotional Intelligence

And performance
assessment of the respondents.

·        
There is a significant association between performance
assessment of the respondents and the individual factors of  Emotional Intelligence.

3.6 VARIABLES OF THE
STUDY

Factor analysis was performed to
identify the key dimensions of Emotional Intelligence influencing  performance of employees in Femina Hotel. The
questions were reduced to Five factors. –

SELF
ASSESSMENT

 SELF
MANAGEMENT 

MOTIVATION

EMPATHY

SOCIAL
SKILLS  .

3.7 RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

A structured questionnaire was used to
collect data whereby it was served as primary data to answer the research
questions and objectives planning to find out the factors that plays a vital
role about Emotional Intelligence towards employee performance.

 

3.8 THE SURVEY
QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaire on emotional
intelligence was based on the Daniel Goleman’s The Trait Emotional Intelligence
Questionnaire designed by London Leadership Academy(http://www.londonleadingforhealth.nhs.uk/)
and The Performance Assessment Questionnaire was  designed based on the Performance Review
Questions of Jeanette Wiesenhofer, Court Services Supervisor, Tempe Municipal
Court, Tempe, Arizona Tempe Municipal Court. (https://www.ncsc.org)

 

3.9    METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

The researcher collected data  from the respondents through primary and
secondary sources. Primary data  was
collected by the researcher through questionnaires and secondary data was collected
from books, journals, websites and unpublished thesis reports.       

 

3.12 SAMPLE

The sample consisted of 60 employees of  Femina Hotels Pvt. Limited only.  The potential pool of participants were
obtained by  simple random sampling.

 

3.13    STATISTICAL TESTS

Chi Square test was used to analyze and
interpret the tabulated data .

 

3.14   LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

            The scope of the study was limited
to a single hotel. Utilizing the emotional intelligence construct is a second
limitation of this study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DATA ANALYSIS
AND INTERPERTATION

TABLE
4.3.6

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PERFORMANCE
ASSESSMENT

OF THE RESPONDENTS AND THE FACTORS

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

 

Performance Assessment

Statistical
inference

Low

High

Total

(n=23)

(100%)

(n=35)

(100%)

(n=58)

(100%)

ti1.Awareness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low

18

78.3%

15

42.9%

33

56.9%

X2=7.094
Df=1
.008<0.05 Significant High 5 21.7% 20 57.1% 25 43.1% ti2.Management               Low 10 43.5% 18 51.4% 28 48.3% X2=.351 Df=1 .553>0.05

Not
Significant

High

13

56.5%

17

48.6%

30

51.7%

ti3.Motivation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low

13

56.5%

19

54.3%

32

55.2%

X2=.028
Df=1
.867>0.05

Not
Significant

High

10

43.5%

16

45.7%

26

44.8%

ti4.Empathy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low

16

69.6%

15

42.9%

31

53.4%

X2=3.979
Df=1
.046<0.05 Significant High 7 30.4% 20 57.1% 27 46.6% ti5.Social Skills Relationship Management               Low 14 60.9% 14 40.0% 28 48.3% X2=2.421 Df=1 .120>0.05

Not
Significant

High

9

39.1%

21

60.0%

30

51.7%

ti6.Overal EI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low

15

65.2%

11

31.4%

26

44.8%

X2=6.407
Df=1
.011<0.05 Significant High 8 34.8% 24 68.6% 32 55.2%   Research hypothesis HR : There is a significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and the factors of  Emotional Intelligence.   Null hypothesis H0 : There is no significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and the factors of  Emotional Intelligence.     Statistical test: Chi-square test was used the above table     FINDINGS   The above table reveals that there is a significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and the factors like Awareness and Empathy. Hence, the calculated value less than table value (p<0.05).   The above table reveals that there is no significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and the factors like Management, Motivation and Social Skills Relationship Management. Hence, the calculated value greater than table value (p>0.05).

 

 

 

TABLE
4.3.7

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PERFORMANCE
ASSESSMENT

OF THE RESPONDENTS AND THE FACTORS

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

 

 

Performance Assessment

Statistical
inference

Low

High

Total

(n=23)

(100%)

(n=35)

(100%)

(n=58)

(100%)

High

9

39.1%

21

60.0%

30

51.7%

ti6.Overal EI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low

15

65.2%

11

31.4%

26

44.8%

X2=6.407
Df=1
.011<0.05 Significant High 8 34.8% 24 68.6% 32 55.2%     Research hypothesis HR : There is a significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and overall  Emotional Intelligence.   Null hypothesis H0 : There is no significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and overall  Emotional Intelligence.     Statistical test: Chi-square test was used the above table     FINDINGS   The above table reveals that there is a significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and Overall Emotional Intelligence. Hence, the calculated value less than table value (p<0.05).     ·      Based on the study it is found that there is a significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and Awareness, Empathy Factors of Emotional Intelligence   ·         Based on the study it is found that there is no significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and Management, Motivation, Social Skills and Relationship Management Factors of Emotional Intelligence.     ·         Based on the study it is found that there is a significant association between performance assessment of the respondents and their Overall Emotional Intelligence.   ·         It is found that there is greater association of the factors of emotional intelligence like Self Awareness and Empathy with performance of the employees and less association with self management, motivation, social skills and relationship management factors with the performance of employees.  Hence it is found that the more self awareness the more efficient performance.   ·         Empathy is also closely associated with the performance assessment parameters.   ·         But The Overall Emotional Intelligence is highly needed for the efficient performance of the employees.     5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS In the business world, greater importance was given to Intelligence Quotient rather that Emotional Intelligence. But now the Scenario has is changed and organisations need to have competent Emotional intelligent work force.             Here are some of the recommendations for organizations and individuals with regard to emotional intelligence. Today's competitive world requires emotionally competent work force for organisations to succeed. As an employee is exposed to many cultures and influenced by many things, the attrition rate is also very high. Organizations earlier used to give tangible benefits to the internal and external customers, but today the employees and customers are looking for fulfilment of their emotional needs. Organizations in a long run to maintain customer loyalty they need to take care of employees and customers emotional needs and behave empathetically. Therefore organization should pay attention towards emotional intelligence needs of employees. ·         Organizations should choose those employees who are having a high level of emotional intelligence. For hotel industry social skills factor of emotional intelligence should be high. ·         Employers should have adequate assessment methods to check the emotional quotient of employees and provide them feedback and get better performance out of them. ·         Organizations should give training to employees to improve their emotional intelligence, because it is not bounded by any factors like age, gender etc. It can be learned at any time in life, and it is not an inborn character in its full sense. ·         Those companies who will be using emotional intelligence will remain successful in the future, because the workforce will be emotionally more stable, competent and can handle every situation with challenge. ·         Individuals who are having lower level of emotional intelligence they should work to improve this and it can result in understanding better your emotions and managing them and it will be helpful in workplace and as a result the performance of an individual will be increased.             The management has to constructively resolve conflicts, and generate and maintain a sense of cooperation and trust. Constructive thinking can lead to the generation of creative ideas to settle disagreements, arrive at win-win solutions to problems, and ensure cooperation and trust throughout an organization. Finally, member of top management who are high on emotional intelligence may instill in their organizations a sense of enthusiasm, excitement, and optimism as well as an atmosphere of cooperation and trust through their being able to develop high quality emotional intelligence parameters with their followers. 5.3 CONCLUSION The present study has produced some important results that have implications for both research and practice. The study on employee's emotional intelligence and their ability to perform effectively on the job is identified as they are able to manage their emotional intelligence, which has a direct impact on their job. These skills are to be developed for achieving higher employee productivity and to enhance the image of the organization. A particularly interesting finding or result of the present study was that emotional intelligence of employees had an impact on their level of performance on the job. This has implications for management, suggesting that organizations could be profitable by identifying the level of emotional intelligence of employees and apply interventions that are focused on the developing emotional intelligence among the employees in the organization. . So what has been concluded from the study is that emotional intelligence is linked at every point of workplace performance and it is of utmost importance nowadays. Results of the present study implies that emotional intelligence has direct impact on job performance. This study revealed that emotional intelligence contributes directly by the way of social awareness, self management, relationship management and self awareness.  This study will be much helpful for the top management for taking the decision regarding the inquiry of different factors which reduce the performance level of the employees working in the hotel. Today, in the world of liberalization and Globalization, the emotional intelligence has started gaining the attention from the public and seen as an important aspect in the organizational environment. Working environment or good performance in an organization is closely related to emotional intelligence. Hence, to be successful in both career and personal lives emotional intelligence is a vital quality to be learnt and developed.          

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