ABSTRACT

            This article deals with the study on
the optimistic challenges faced by the unorganized sector of women workers. It also
deals with the life of women street vendors. It also talks about how the women
street vendors contribute to the society by physically and economically. This
is the study of women street vendors and how they are benefical to the society.
This article deals with the issue of women street vendors in unorganized
sector. It also encounters the standard of life and ability of a women street
vendors. It also tells about their business mind and talents. The study has an
insight on the street vendors how they balance their daily income with their
family and society. This article throws light on the life of unorganized sector
women workers and  highlights the
challenges faced by the women in their family circle and society.  

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Key
words: Women
street vendors, unorganized sector, socio-economical status.

INTRODUCTION:

            “Empowered women are a prerequisite
for creating a good nation, when women are empowered society with stability is
assured. Empowerment of women is essential as their value systems lead to the
development of a good family, good society and ultimately good nation”

                         -Dr.A.P.J.ABDULKALAM

Most of the people living under
the line of poverty in developing nations. Unorganized sector wherever you can
see it’s visible in nature. These activities are concentrated by society to
include social and economical privileged sections. Informal employment is
generally a large source of employment for women than for men in the developing
world.

            According to the ministry of Housing
and Urban Poverty Alleviation, street vendors in India more than 10 million (1
Croce) and Delhi had the second biggest number of something like 2, 00,000
street vendors. Most of them were immigrant or without job workers, who on an
average worked for 10-12 hours a day and remained impoverished. They work below
conditions of economic and social insecurity. Unorganized sector has been
growing in urban areas and now a day accounts for 91.5 per cent of the
workforce.

Women street vendors most of us
occupy in public place are called street or bus stand or market outside areas.
It is a more number of people here and there ventoring places. Its most
scattered category, which includes women engaged in selling different products
like broomsticks, cane basket, utensils, petty cosmetics, bangles, vegetables
and running road site tea stalls, mess etc, Nearly 40% of total vendors are
women and 30% these women are the sole earning members in their families. Many
of these women workers are doing these activities primarily, because of their
situation to earn money and growth of their economic status. Their earning is
necessary for sheer survival.

Literature
review:

Dunlop and
Velkoff-1999 Indian society has got a significant role in the
increasing number of women workers in the informal economy. There are regional,
religions, social and economic groups which are independent of each other.
Indian society is hierarchical with everyone ranked according to their caste,
class, wealth and power. In addition to that, much of women’s economic activities
like working on farms, weaving and home based work etc. are not accounted in
the statistics. In addition to that, women are traditionally responsible for
the daily household chores. As a result of the cultural and other restrictions
more and more women involved informal work than in the formal work, where the
jobs are unlinked and low-paying with little benefits.N.Andal-2002 Women
in the workforce earning wages or a salary are a part of a modern phenomenon,
on that developed at the same time as the growth of paid employment for men;
yet women have been challenged by inequality in the workforce. ILO-2007 The
ILO data for 1995-2004 shows that the women’s entry into the labour market
continues and the gender gap in labour participation has been reduced by 3.5
per cent worldwide. Though women are entering the workforce, they are least
recognized as workers many a times. A large number of women work without pay. A
significant proportion of women are self employed which means they are engaged
in informal work. They have poor working conditions and they lack social
security. There is inequality within this informal work. Women are
disproportionately represented and they occupy lower quality jobs within the
self-employment. In the case of highly skilled jobs, 28 per cent of the
positions are occupied by women and its increasing. But the gender gap still
persists due to the inequality and the lack of anti-discrimination laws.Sankaran
Kamala and Roopa Madhav-2011The life of unorganized sector workers is very
tough. Social workers and educationists have been for a long time concerned
more with women empowerment and have contributed a great deal in focusing
attention of the people to the importance of several factors which should be
taken care of in helping women to develop fully. The supremacy of male is
reflected in all the acts in the family but women’s autonomy is essential to
rectify this imbalance and attain gender equality. The workers in an
unorganized sector have legal protection in terms of job security, wages or
working conditions. In 2005 the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII)
commissioned a study titled ‘Understanding the Levels of Women’s Empowerment in
the Work Place’ revealed that women constitute only 6% of total workforce in
corporate houses. The percentage of women in leading managerial positions is
abysmally low. Only 7% labour force is in the organized  sector and 93% work in unorganized or
informal sector. The reason for the employment of women in such large numbers
in the informal sector is women’s weaker bargaining power, low skilled labour,
generally lower wages than men and lack of unionization. The precise efforts of
women’s participation in wage work on the family-based household have received
little detailed attention until recently. This is particularly the case in the
urban context of many developing countries where female labour force
participation. Despite the existence of various constitutional and legal
provisions safeguarding women’s employment a large number of women workers, particularly
in the unorganized sector suffer from various disadvantages relating to their
working lives as well as home. The coverage of labour laws has not benefits
these women workers in many crucial area, especially health, maternal and
social security. A striking feature of most unorganized sector employment is
that workers are employed largely through unorganized contractors and
subcontractors.    

RESEARCH
METHODOLODY:

Objective of the
study:

·        
To analysis the women street vendors
daily income.

·        
To study the issues and challenges of
women street vendors in the un organized sector.

Hypothesis of
the study:

·        
There is significant difference between
income of the respondents and their family management.

·        
There is significant difference between
marital status and working environment.

Research design:

            The research
design used in this research study is descriptive.

Sample method:

            The researcher
adopted simple random sampling method and collected 61 samples of the
respondent.

Chi-Square Test:

            As a statistical
tool has been applied in this research

One
way Anova (or) F-Test):

            Another
statistical tool has been applied in this research.

Data collection:

            The primary data
was collected from unorganized women street vendors through interview method.
Secondary data was collected from many sources like Websites, Journals and
Books.

DATA ANALYSIS
AND INTERPERTATION

Hypothesis
1(Chi-Square Test)

There is significant difference
between income of the respondents and their family management.

Table
1: Difference between Income of the respondent and their family management

 

Montly
income

very
Satisfication

Statisfication

Neutral

Dissatisfication

Very dissatisfication

Total

1000-2000

         
0

      0

     0

       1

      2

     3

2001-4000

      0

      8

     0

       5

      9

     22

4001-6000

       0

      5

     3

       12

      13

     33

6001-8000

       1

      2

      0

        0

      0

      3

Total

       1

      15 

      3

       18

      24

     61

 

                                                         
Chi-Square Test

 

          Value

             df

    Asymp.sig.(2.sided)

Pearson
Chi-square

          30.744                 

             12

                .002

Likelihood
Ratio

          20.608

             12

                .056

Linear by
linear association

            1.905

               1    

                .168

N of valid
cases

                61

 

 

 

H1: There is a significant different
between income of the respondents and their family management.

            Ho: There is no significant
difference between income of the respondents and their family management

Finding: The
above table shows the table value (0.05) it is greater than calculate value
(0.02), we accept the research hypothesis (H1) and null hypothesis are rejected
(Ho). Therefore we can conclude that there is a significance difference between
income of the respondents and their family management of unorganized sector.

Hypothesis
2 One way ANOVA or F-test

There is significant difference
between marital status of the respondents and working environment.

Table
1:Difference between marital status of the respondents and working environment.

Marital status

            N

          Mean

   Std . Deviation

Neutral

            10

          1.80

          .422

Dissatisfaction

            30

          2.03

          .490

Very
Dissatisfaction

            21

          1.52

          .680

Total

            61

          1.82

          .592

                                                            
ANOVA

Marital
Status

 Sum of       
squares

      
       Df

 
Mean square

    
        F

 
     Sig

Between Groups

       3.212

          2

       1.606

      5.231

      .008

Within Groups

     17.805

        58

         .307

 

 

Total

     21.016

        61

 

 

 

 

H1: There is a significant
different between marital status of the respondents and working environment.

            Ho: There is no significant
difference between marital status of the respondents and working environment.

Finding: The
above table shows the calculate value (0.08) it is greater than table value
(0.05), we accept the Null hypothesis (Ho) and research hypothesis are rejected
(H1). Therefore we can conclude that there is no significance difference
between marital status of the respondents and working environment of
unorganized sector women street vendors.

 

 

MAJOR
FINDINGS:

·        
The respondents have agreed with the
statement of Daily income of women street vendors and their income help to
manage their family. Only 1 per cent of the respondent dissatisfy and 2 per
cent of the respondents are very dissatisfy.( Table.1)

·        
There is no significance difference
between marital status of the respondents and working environment of
unorganized sector women street vendors.( Table.2).

CONCLUSION
AND DISCUSSION:

            The study shows the unorganized
sector is characterized by low wages that are often insufficient to meet
minimum living standards including nutrition, long working hours and hazardous
working conditions, lack of basic services. Like first aid, drinking water, and
sanitation at the work environment. Findings show that poverty is a
multidimensional thought implying not only lack of choice, sense of
considerations. We find that a more visible entitlement of women workers keep
on to live a life full of compromises and most of their own right of entry in
terms of right to life are subsidized. The most important formative factor to
such in access and disagreement primarily evolves out of poor literacy and lack
of responsiveness resulting in keeping out from the main stream
opportunities.Women cannot meet their day to day expense, because their earning
is low and lack of subsistence and opportunities. But today women need to take
the lead role and also working women have to be empowered more.

RECOMMENDATION:

·        
To increase the employment condition of
women and improve their economical status

·        
To introduce plans, schemes, policies
for women in unorganized sector

·        
In India we need to encourage women
participation in public and private sector and support women development.

REFERENCES:

1.      
Parajita Sharma, Dipjyoti konwar,
(2014). “Struggle for spaces: Ever day life of a women street vendor in Delhi,
the Delhi University Journal of the humanities and the social sciences, Vol.1,
pp48. 

2.      
Sankaran kamala and Roopa Madhav. 2011
‘Industrial and employment relations’ Department and Bureau for Gender Equality
International Labour Office. Geveva.

3.      
Andal, N. (2002). Women and Indian
Society: Options and Constraints. New Delhi: Rawat Publications.

4.      
Dunlop, J.E, and Velkoff, V.A. (1999).
Women of the world: Women and the Economy in India. Retrieved from http://WWW.Census-gov/ipc/prod/wid-9802.pdf
Accessed on 14/1/2010.

5.      
International Labour
Organization.(2007). Equality at work: Talk ling the challenges. International
Labour conference, 96th session. Geneva. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/grops/public/—dgreports/—dcomm/—webdev/documents/publication/wcms
082607.pdf Accessed on 21-1-2010

6.      
Dr.M.D.Krishna-supporting servicesfor
working women in India in unorganized sector: A critical analysis ISSN2321-4171
http://jsslawcollege.in
/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/supporting-services-for-working-women-in-India.pdf.

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