According to the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA), distracted driving is defined as any activities that
channels attention from safety driving such as texting or talking on the phone,
eating and drinking, talking with the passengers on your vehicle, listening
hard to the radio, or anything that takes away the attention of the driver to
safety driving. In accordance to this statement, Texting is the most alarming
distraction. “You cannot drive safely unless the task of driving has your full
attention” as noted by this article. NHTSA also noted that in 2015, A total of 3,477
individuals were killed and 391, 000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes
which involves distracted drivers. During the daylight hours, about 660,000
drivers are using mobile phones while driving. And this creates massive
probabilities of death and injuries on United States roads. (NHTSA, 2017)

According to WHO in relation to NHTSA, studies from several
countries reported that the percentage of drivers with the usage of mobile
phones while driving has increased over the past 5-10 years, ranging from 1% up
to 11%. This study states that usage of mobile phones by drivers can decrease
the attention while driving such as, taking their eyes off the road, their hand
off the steering wheel, and their minds off the road and other surrounding
situations. This type of distraction is commonly known as cognitive
distraction, which become visible to have the biggest impact on driving
behavior. There’s a lot of causes reported when a driver is under the usage of
mobile phones and these includes, reaction to traffic signals, impaired ability
to keep in the correct lane, shorter following distances, and an overall
reduction awareness in the driving situation. Studies also suggest that the
usage of mobile phones while driving would be more likely to engage four times
involving in a severe accidents or injuries. Mobile phone use by drivers is
more driven by the technology itself, their focus transfers in reaction on a
ringing phone, regardless of the traffic or driving safely. Being cognitively
distracted, mobile phone use divides the attention between the conversation
they are involved in than to drive safely. Overall study reported that the use
of mobile phones, whether hand-held or hands-free while driving was increasingly
leads to serious accidents or injuries (WHO & NHTSA, 2011).

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Mobile phone use while driving lessens performance or safety
driving. According to this study, young adult drivers were more likely to
engage in using mobile phones while driving and lead to higher risk of severe
injuries (Bates, et al., 2014). Using mobile phones while driving is one of the
most serious driving distractions and its negative influences were already
supported by recent researches and studies. In 2014, among 656.3 ten thousand of
all road accidents in China, 47.2% reported caused by mobile phone use while
driving. According to this study, there are four usual distracting activities
of mobile phone use while driving which includes answering calls, making calls,
reading messages and texting and sending messages which is the top most of it
is texting and sending messages while driving. 
This study identified that the four most frequent usages of mobile
phones while driving and several self-regulatory acts for indemnify for driving
impairments (Zhou, Yu, & Wang, 2016).

            One study states that at least one
of every two motor vehicle drivers reported in engaging in distracted driving.
Turning down the driving speed and increasing the distance from another vehicle
in front were the most prominent task-management strategies for texting or
talking while driving. As a result, drivers who are consciously use strategy to
avoid police detection were reported to be more likely to engage in distracted
driving (Trespalacios, et al., 2017).