Acidic Water  BY: Andrea Hernandez 5th hour Problem Statement:  The problem statement is a question that identifies the independent variable and the dependent variable. The Independent Variable is the factor that will change between the testing groups. The Dependent Variable is the effect that is measured (the data collected). In this science project the independent variable is the acidity of the water and for the dependent variable is the rate of growth of the sunflower plants. The experiment problem statements is: How does acidic water affect the growth of sunflower plants?Research Summary: The symbol “pH” stands for potential hydrogen, it has a scale of 0-14, 7 indicates neutral and below 7 indicate very acidic, while much higher than 7 is very basic, also called alkalinity. In order for plants to have normal growth, they should be between 5.5-7.0  range. Major effects of extreme of pH levels in plants may include gaps in nutrient availability and a high accumulation and concentrations of minerals that could be very harmful to the plants. In very alkaline soil, plants have certain micronutrients such as zinc and copper become chemically unavailable to them. In very acidic soil, macronutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus are not absorbed while others macronutrients reach toxic levels which will extremely damage the plant.The different level of ph water also represents acid rain. Acidic rain is usually between a 4.0-5.5 range which is really acidic for plants. It can have a serious effect, for example, it can damage the plant’s roots, cause stunted growth and even sometimes kill the plants. The nutrients in the soil get destroyed and the microorganisms that helped produce nutrients get killed by the rain. Usually, the plants that survive are very weak and vulnerable.Hypothesis: If the acidity of the water affects the rate of growth of the sunflower plants and the ph level decreases then the plants will not grow as much or nothing because the water has to be at the neutral ph level.Variables/Controls: Independent Variable: Acidity of the water Dependent Variable: Rate of growthExtraneous Variable (constant variable): The ph of the water by measuring the ph before watering the plants.Control Group: The ph of the water and the sunlight Materials:1 bag of sunflower seeds5 medium size potsSoil for 5 pots1 bottle of sulfuric acid 3 gallons of water5 beakerLitmus paper to measure the pH1-foot rulerProcedure:Prepare the 5 pots by filling them with the same amount of soil. Place at least 3 sunflower seeds in each pot in case some of the seeds don’t germinate. Once the seeds start to germinate, carefully remove the unwanted seed from the pots.Label each pot: A,  B, C, D, and E. Fill each beaker with 200 ml of water.  Add sulfuric acid in 4 beakers until the following below is obtained : Beaker A: Water only (pH 6.0) Beaker B: Sulfuric acid until it get to pH 5.0Beaker C: Sulfuric acid until it get to pH 4.0Beaker D: Sulfuric acid until it get to pH 3.0Beaker E: Sulfuric acid until it get to pH 2.0     3.    Water the sunflower twice a day using water from beaker A for pot A, beaker B for pot B, beaker C for pot C, beaker D for pot D and beaker E for pot E.. Observe them for for 21 days and record every 2 days the height of each plant expect when its day 20 measure also day 21 since its the last day of the experiment Conclusion: The problem statement asked how does acidic water affect the growth of sunflower plant and yes it does affect the growth of plants. This experiment supported the hypothesis because it showed that the more acidic the water was the more it affected the plant’s growth. The average height for Pot A was 8.6cm, Pot B was 7.5cm, Pot C was 3.3cm, Pot D was 0cm, And Pot E was 0cm. Pot A was less acidic and had more growth than the plants with more acid which answer the problem statement, yes acidic water affects the growth of sunflowers. In any experiment there with always be errors, in this experiment the measurement of  sulfuric acid add might not be the exact amount it should have been and this may have affected the growth of the plant, also the height of the plants might have been measured accurately and it may also affected the graph, and the amount of water add might not have been the exact 200ml it should have been and it affects the plant by having more sulfuric acid in the water. If this experiment would be repeated then what should be done differently to have fewer errors, would be measuring things more carefully and accurately also record the number as exact as possible. The acidic water represents acid rainwater. Acidic rain is not part of nature its mainly cause when factories and vehicles release nitrogen and sulfur dioxide into the air. These gases combine with water vapor in the sky and turn into sulfuric and nitric acid water vapor. When it rains the water is no longer clean it is full of these gases and they returned to the surface during rainfall and cause damage to nature. This shows that there should be a stop in making so much pollution it’s not only affecting the plans but also animals drink rainwater and it can be dangerous for them. This experiment hopefully will give people conscience about pollution.