Additionally, managing potassium permanganates wells after underground
installation is a hard task. Changes in the temperature or underground
activity can break the KMnO4 wells and release KMnO4 very
close surface ground. Chemical oxidation using KMnO4 can be used
safely for remediation. However, the
oxidation reactions are corrosive and can burn skin, kill several animals and
turn the surface of the treatment area to a purple color. The deeper broken
KMnO4 well can affect to supply of household water supplies close
the ISCO systems. Therefore, any ISCO system must be comprehensively monitored
during implementation and after completion of treatment to control the KMnO4
releases (Remediation: Woburn case, 2010). With KMnO4
remediation, there is the potential for process-induced detrimental effects
such as loss of permeability in the soil due to particulate manganese dioxide (MnO2) which is a reaction byproduct. In the pH range of 3.5 to
12, the following reaction results in the solid precipitate as shown (EPA, 2016).Potassium permanganate pump and treat
remediation is not cost effective for high contaminant concentrations because
of the large amounts of oxidizing agent required and complex process to pump
KMnO4 into the soil.
Therefore, to reduce the cost of potassium permanganate injections for
subsurface remediation, a long drill or high-pressure port is used to pump a
large amount KMnO4 into to a hole that is placed in the contaminated location or to directly inject pressurized KMnO4 solution into the
contaminant zone. The result of this process may adversely increase the soil
density and the KMnO4 liquid/ gas fill pore space in the soil which
will limit water infiltration, percolation, and storage; impact plant growth;
or disrupt nutrient cycling (Vance, 2010).
The changing structure of the soil can affect water movement and storage. Compaction reduces the ability of the soil to hold water and the rate
of water movement through soil. It limits water
infiltration and causes increased runoff and erosion. Compacting by instruments
in the topsoil can concentrate runoff that can create rills or gullies,
especially on steep slopes. When the amount of water that enters, the soil is
reduced, less water is available for plant growth and percolation to deep root
zones. The large and uncontrolled amount of liquid or gas pump into the aquifer
can be the cause of incomplete oxidation or formation of intermediate