Anabolic steroids (steroids for short) are used widely among bodybuilders to
increase their testosterone, thus to get stacked or larger. Steroids seem to be a
wonderful thing for these bodybuilders, but very few of them know just how they work
and what the effects are.
History
The word anabolic portrays any substance, which accumulates nitrogen in
muscle protein and from there builds muscle tissue. The bodys natural anabolic steroid
is called testosterone, which men (naturally) obtain more of, than women do.
Testosterone brings on the development of speed, mass, endurance, definition, and
strength. Testosterone is naturally released into the blood stream, goes to different
locations, accomplishes its goal, and is broken down by enzymes. This process is done
rather quickly. Eventually chemists discovered how to modify testosterone molecules to
make them last longer, and this is how anabolic steroids came into play.


What Steroids do (biologically)?
In a normal body, the procedures of catabolism (breaking down and removal of old cells)
and anabolism (building up of new cells) are in an equilibrium. When anabolic steroids
are used, this balance is thrown off by the supremacy of the building up of new cells, and
from cells come muscle, so therefore muscle mass is increased. As previously stated, all
anabolic steroids are chemical derivatives of testosterone. Because testosterone has a
short biological half-life, pharmacological use requires the steroid to be altered to slow
metabolism by the liver. Commonly, oral steroids are modified by alkylation (replacing
H with a CH3 group), and injectable steroids are modified by esterification of the
hydroxyl group.

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Anabolic steroids work by coupling with the cytoplasmic androgen receptor,
where the steroid-receptor complex moves into the nucleus and binds to DNA. The
steroid and receptor may also dissociate in the nucleus and act on DNA separately, but it
is uncertain if this actually happens. Testosterone may also inhibit the catabolic pathway
associated with glucocorticoids, but this is also uncertain as to whether this is affiliated
with an interaction between testosterone and glucocorticoid or the nuclear manner of the
steroid-receptor complex. In the nucleus steroids seem to intensify specific gene material.

Then mRNA is prepared to be sent out of the nucleus, leaving increased protein
synthesis. If the complex inhibits the catabolic enzymes then it is possible that catabolic
inhibition may also occur in the nucleus. By looking at the concentration of the androgen
receptor, it is an example of how sensitive it is. Skeletal muscle typically contains 0.5-3
femto (1E-12) moles per milligram of protein, at the same time other androgen sensitive
organs, may have up to 25 times more receptors.
Oral Steroids and their effect on The Liver
Oral steroids have a negative effect on the liver due to the fact that they have an alkyl
group (methyl or ethyl) assembled at the 17-alpha position. The 17-beta hydroxyl (OH)
is now changed from a secondary to an unoxidizable teritary one (an irregular disfigure),
which obstructs the natural hepatic oxidation of the 17 hydroxyl group. When this
metabolic inactivation is blocked, the liver turns to less proficient and more complex
mechanisms of inactivation. Injectable steroids are conceived to go in the system and get
hydrolyzed and become a natural metabolizable secondary 17-beta hydroxyl steroid, and
are not considered to be dangerous to the liver.


Common/Known Effects of Steroid Use
Water retention is a known sign of a steroid user. Usually the neck and facial are
become puffy, or puffier than normal. It may be hard to recognize in someone you first
met, but once his or her steroid use is complete, you can see the difference. Acne is
another effect through steroid use. A person who has never had a problem can develop
one from steroids. Also acne can appear in places that were never a problem. The
formation of breast-like glands can arise, this is called gynecomastia. Roid rages or
overly aggressive behavior can take place through steroid use. People often joke about
the term roid rage, but it is not a joke. People who use steroids often find that their
performance during their workouts are enhanced because they can take out their
aggression through lifting more, but they also take aggression out on other parts of their
surroundings (people around them, walls, slamming doors, etc). High blood pressure can
become a problem after or during steroid use. Because steroids affect cholesterol levels
(by clogging the arteries), heart problems may arise in steroid users. The elevated level
on the nervous system can trigger heart Palpitations. When a steroid user begins using,
sexual arousal increases,

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