Antisocial
Personal Disorder

Antisocial
personality disorder is a consistent pattern of behavior and
experience that deviates from the normal expectation of the society. It is characterized
by a failure to conform to social and legal codes, a lack of anxiety and guilt,
and irresponsible behaviors. Some of the traits of person under antisocial personality disorder are;

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1. Failure to conform to social
norms as guided by the rule of law indicated by awful acts with respect to
lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds
for arrest

2.  Deceitfulness, as indicated
by repeated behavior of cheating and conning for personal profit or pleasure.

3. Poor planner, failing to plan
his/her future.

4.  Irritability and aggressiveness
indicated by his/her high levels of arrogance and physical fights.

5.  Less concerned about the
welfare, safety and feelings of others.

This form of disorder
is mostly found at the age of adolescence especially after the age of 18.

Psychopathy
is a
mental disorder in which an a person portrays a moral and antisocial behavior,
with  lack of ability to love or being
unable to establish good personal relationships, extreme egocentricity, and
inability to learn from experience.

Some
of the traits which prompt for a Psychopathy screening include; superficial
charm and good intelligence, absence of delusions and other signs of
irrational thinking, absence of nervousness or psychoneurotic manifestations,
unreliability, untruthfulness and insincerity, lack
of remorse and shame, inadequately motivated antisocial
behavior, poor judgment and failure to learn from experience.

 

There
is no actual clinical diagnosis of Psychopathy disorder well put but one can
use the behavioral checklist to determine whether one is or not under Psychopathy.

 A number of available
psychometric scales that assist to measure the construct of Psychopathy
include;

·        
Psychopathy
Personality Inventory (PPI)

·        
Blackburn
and Fawcett’s
Antisocial Personality Questionnaire  

·        
Hares
PCL-R.

The commonly used is the PCL-R. It contains two sections; a semi-structured
interview and a review of the personal files and history. When evaluating, the
clinician or psychologist uses a score of about 20 elements to determine if the
person under subject is psychopathic. The basic items used to examine the
person include;

Ø  Interpersonal relationships

Ø  His/her affective or emotional involvement

Ø  How he/she responses to other people and to which
particular situations

Ø  Evidence of social deviance in the society

Ø  school history

Ø  work experience

Ø  career goals

Ø  finances

Ø  health

The
presence of Psychopathy predicts future violence which can lead to harm on
oneself or others. In some extremes, it leads to killings, sexual abuse among
others.

The Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorders have
some similarities and differences based on the way they are diagnosed or treated.

On similarities;

1.     
Both of them revolve
around violence and being antisocial. A person bearing any of them will be
violent to others even to him/herself. He/she will be careless about others.
The character of continuously being irresponsible is also repeated in both.

2.     
In both, the individual
must be over 18 in order to be considered as affected.

3.     
The onset of the behavior
is at the age of 15 in both cases.

On the differences between the two disorders;

1.     
In Antisocial
Personality Disorder, DSM diagnosis is used while in Psychopathy, non-clinical
diagnosis tools are used.

2.     
The method of screening
in Psychopathy is a checklist while in Antisocial Personality Disorder, screening
is done by use of Antisocial Process Screening Device.

 

Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder

There
are two approaches in treating AsPD;

1.     
The therapist must
build a good relationship with the subject client to guide him/her away from
thinking in a self-interest way and immediate gratification and instead
thinking about himself and others too.

2.     
There is need to focus
on the antisocial youths in the society who appear to be open for treatment and
involve their family members and peers.

3.     
Behavior Modification
can be used to change the attitude of the person by giving them presents as a
way of appreciation and concern. This might change them.

Treatment of Psychopathy

Professionals
in the Psychological field mostly disagree on whether it can be treated and
cured. Many believe no therapy or even medication that can essentially
change the brains of those with psychopathy. Others believe that there can be a
technique employed to curb the disorder. The currently designed technique is
the Decompression Model which emphasizes the ways in which positive
reinforcement can be used to shape behavior of the person under the subject.  This can be achieved through rewarding them,
showing them concern among others.

Ego-syntonic are behaviors
or characters, values, and feelings that are in synchronization with needs and
goals of the person’s ego
or his real image. People with such behaviors rarely experience distress
because they believe what they do is the right and it is like an in-built
character. This may cause them continuous harm unknowingly. This is untreatable
because it is in line with the person’s natural character. It is not learnt but
rather inbuilt. That means the person is destined to jail or lasting violence
and societal disassociation.

 

 

 

 

References

Swanson, M. C. J., Bland, R. C., & Newman, S. C. (1994). Antisocial
personality disorders. Acta psychiatrica scandinavica, 89(s376), 63-70.

Sutker, P. B., & King, A. R. (1985). Antisocial personality
disorder. In Behavioral case formulation (pp.
115-153). Springer US.

Widiger, Thomas A. “Antisocial personality disorder.” Psychiatric Services 43, no. 1
(1992): 6-8.

Grant, B. F., Hasin, D. S., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P.,
Ruan, W., & Pickering, R. P. (2004). Prevalence, correlates, and disability
of personality disorders in the United States: results from the National
Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The Journal of clinical
psychiatry.

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