By discovering the properties of clay in 24,000 BC, the industry was born. Human realized that by digging up clay and mix it with water can form it to different shape and scale and then by firing it in the kiln, it will be hard enough to be used in the daily life. This point was the beginning of the industry.
In about 10,000 years later, human in India and Mesopotamia, manufactured tile for the first time in the history. By the way, there was around 9000 BC, where human used ceramics for the first time in the form of pottery vessel for sorting water and Clay Bricks.
In 1500 BC, glass was produced independently of ceramics, despite before that in 8000 BC, ancient Egyptian discovered glaze by overheating potteries in the kilns.
While the metal industry was in its infancy in the Middle Ages, humans invented furnaces from natural material to melt metals. But in the 16th century by using and developing of synthetic material with better resistance against high temperatures (called refractories) was the beginning of the Industry Revolution. These refractories gave the opportunity to the human to produce and manufacture ceramics and other material such as cement, coke and chemicals by melting metals and glass on an industrial scale.
There is a claim that the second half of the 19th century the revolution of ceramic usage was born. In this period developing of ceramic materials made it an important source to produce a range of different items and it became a necessary part in other inventions, such as automobiles, televisions, radios, computers-ceramic and glass materials.
The below chart shows briefly the path which ceramic passed through in thousands of years to developed.
Relative to metals and plastics, the ceramic material can be used in a different range of conditions. I.e. intensive changes in pressure or temperature, rust or corrosion. And it will remain in its condition for a long period of time. Ceramics will be even stronger and its quality will enhance if it sells oxide with alumina and zirconia (zirconium dioxide, a white solid used in ceramic glazes and refractory coatings and as a synthetic substitute for diamonds in jewellery).
Some of the ceramic material advantages are:
High Strength, High Fracture Toughness, High Hardness, Excellent Wear Resistance, Good Frictional Behaviour, Anti-Static, Thermal Expansion Coefficient similar to cast iron, Modulus of Elasticity similar to steel, Corrosion Resistance in acids and alkalis, Low Thermal Conductivity, Non-Magnetic and Excellent Surface Finish (0.006 µm Ra)
In addition, ceramic properties give the possibility to produce a different range of ceramics by using a variety of raw materials.Using of ceramics in production will reduce the total cost
because it doesn’t need to be machining and by pressing the ceramic powder man will be able to obtain any shape with any dimensions. Against a range of different advantages which have been mentioned above, there is some small disadvantages.Dimensional tolerances difficult to control during processing.Weak in tension.Poor shock resistance.
Can crack when hit with heavy items
If people have been asking about the ceramic components in the automotive industry, the majority of them do not know anything about it, even they can’t imagine how ceramics, in a small scale which is smaller than the tip of the pencil, will be a part of their cars. Despite more than 60% of automotive timing devices are made from ceramics.
Nowadays, decreasing in ceramics component size made them exponentially more sophisticated. In other hands, since ceramics component became more popular in this field, by developing and producing in large quantities, will reduce the company’s cost.
Furthermore, the properties of ceramics will be the reason to produce pastime and entertainment applications, communications facilities and cars safety possibilities. Because they are going to be more complex in the automotive industry. In addition, companies by using ceramics components are preparing their self to produce the next generation of vehicles, such as hybrid, electronic, low emission and eco-friendly cars.
Prior to WW2, there was a lacking of ceramics component in technology. Even the cars were using radios, but ceramics was not a part of the design. But everything had been changed after the war. Companies obtain new manufacturing techniques to develop ceramics in molecules level before processing, melting and firing it. This unique characteristic of developed ceramics found its way to household appliances and other industries except to automotive industry until the 1970s and 1980s.
In this duration, manufacturers started to use more electronic elements in their products, such as New radios, tape decks and 8-tracks. Simultaneously, homes entertainment features found their ways to the cars.
In the 1990s changes in lifestyle, convinced the automotive manufacturer whether to use more electronics safety features in their cars such as Air-bags and anti-lock brake systems. And today by changing in the standard levels by the Federal regulations and public demand, the automotive industry is tending to use more and more of safety features and that means, the using of ceramics components is increasing sharply and it can be found in every aspect of the vehicles.
Except to important safety features which have been named above, today, this list is going to be longer and longer continuously with new features such as tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), Back-up detection, Blind spot detection and etc. All these are possible only with occur improvement in molecular level in ceramics component.
In last 20 years, the improvement in total frequency tolerance is the biggest change for ceramics resonators and allowing for using them in all kind of modern CAN-BUS applications. (A Controller Area Network (CAN bus) is a robust vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other in applications without a host computer). We should add other features to this list, such as wireless systems in automotive technologies, Bluetooth systems, remote keyless entry (RKE) also include ceramics. In other words, everything such as the navigating system to satellite radio, EMI filters, Bandpass filters are derived from ceramics. It’s very important to add new automotive technologies to this list. Hybrid vehicles. In this category, ceramics are the best suited as snubber capacitors to protect the system of the car against charging circuits from voltage spikes which happen when a hybrid car switch from gasoline to battery power.