Chapter 2

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The researcher used the descriptive

survey method of research with the use of the questionnaire as main instrument

in gathering the needed data for the study.

Descriptive research is a fact

finding with adequate interpretation. This method involves the gathering of the

data regarding current conditions and ascertaining what is typical or normal

under specific conditions (Sanchez, 1997).

Locale and Population of the Study

This

study was conducted in the public elementary schools in La Trinidad District,

Schools Division of Benguet during the School Year 2017-2018. The respondents

of the study was composed of twenty

three (23) experienced teachers and sixteen (16) new teachers with a total of thirty nine (39) Grade I teachers.

The

distribution of the respondents is shown in Table A below.

Table

A

Distribution

of Respondents

Name

of Schools

Experienced

Teachers

New

Teachers

1.

Alapang

Elementary School

1

1

2. Alno-Kadorie Elem. School

1

0

3.

Ambiong

Elementary School

1

1

4.

Bahong

Elementary School

1

0

5.

Balili

Elementary School

1

1

6.

Balukas

Elementary School

1

0

7.

Beckel

Elementary School

0

1

8.

Benguet

SPED Center

1

1

9.

Bineng

Elementary School

0

1

10.

Bodiweng

Elementary School

1

0

11.

Buyagan

Elementary School

1

2

12.

La

Trinidad Central School

2

4

13.

Lamtang

Elementary School

0

1

14.

Lamut

Elementary School

1

0

15.

Longlong

Elementary School

1

0

16.

Lubas

Elementary School

1

0

17.

Pagal

Elementary School

1

0

18.

Pico

Elementary School

1

1

19.

Puguis

Elementary School

3

1

20.

Tacdian

Elementary School

1

0

21.

Talinguray

Elementary School

0

1

22.

Tawang

Elementary School

2

0

23.

Wangal

Elementary School

1

0

TOTAL

23

16

Source: La Trinidad District Office, School

Year 2017-2018

Data Gathering Instrument

The questionnaire was the main

gathering instrument used in this study. It was constructed and formulated

based on primary sources about reading and decoding skills from the Department

of Education and from articles and readings retrieved from the internet

The questionnaire was composed of the following parts: Part

I – Level of development of decoding skills of Grade 1 learners; Part II – Extent

of effectiveness of the strategies used in developing the decoding skills; Part

III – Degree of effect of the factors that affect the acquisition of the

decoding skills; Part IV – Level of frequency of the use of instructional

materials in teaching decoding skills; and Part V – Extent of effectiveness of

the measures to address problems in teaching decoding skills

Reliability and Validity of the

Instrument

To test the reliability of the

questionnaire, a pretest was conducted to ten (10) teachers who were

enrolled in the graduate studies in

Baguio Central University, Baguio City. Their responses were consolidated and

treated using the Kuder-Richardson Instrument Reliability Formula (Downie and

Heath, 1984). The formula is as follows:

rK – R =

NS2 –

m (N-m)

S2

(N – 1)

Where : N

= number of items in the

questionnaire

m = mean

S2 = variance

The obtained coefficient reliability of 0.90 proved that the

questionnaire was highly reliable.

Data Gathering Procedure

The

researcher sought permission to float

the questionnaire to the respondents in La Trinidad district schools from the

Schools Division Superintendent of Benguet Division. Copies of the

questionnaire were floated personally by this researcher to the target

respondents. The duly accomplished questionnaire were retrieved after

sometime by the researcher with the help

of some friends and co-teachers in the different elementary schools.

The

collected questionnaire were sorted out and the teachers’ responses were

tallied for statistical treatment.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The collected data were statistically treated using both

descriptive and inferential

statistics in order to facilitate their analysis and interpretation.

The five-point relative values and its corresponding numerical

limits, descriptive equivalents and symbols were used to determine the level of

the responses on the following:

Level of development

of the decoding skills of the Grade I learners

Relative

Values

Statistical

Limits

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols

5

4.21

– 5.00

Highly

Developed

HD

4

3.41

– 4.20

Developed

D

3

2.61

– 3.40

Moderately

Developed

MD

2

1.81

– 2.60

Slightly

Developed

SD

1

1.00

– 1.80

Least

Developed

LD

Extent of

effectiveness on the strategies on teaching decoding skills

Relative

Values

Statistical

Limits

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols

5

4.21

– 5.00

Highly

Effective

HE

4

3.41

– 4.20

Effective

E

3

2.61

– 3.40

Moderately

Effective

ME

2

1.81

– 2.60

Slightly

Effective

SE

1

1.00

– 1.80

Least

Effective

LE

Degree of effect of

the factors that affect the acquisition of the decoding skills

Relative

Values

Statistical

Limits

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols

5

4.21

– 5.00

High

Effect

HE

4

3.41

– 4.20

Moderate

Effect

ME

3

2.61

– 3.40

Slight

Effect

SE

2

1.81

– 2.60

Least

Effect

LE

1

1.00

– 1.80

No

Effect

NE

Level

of frequency of the use of instructional materials in teaching decoding skills

Relative

Values

Statistical

Limits

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols

5

4.21

– 5.00

Always

Used

AU

4

3.41

– 4.20

Moderately

Used

MU

3

2.61

– 3.40

Often

Used

OU

2

1.81

– 2.60

Seldom

Used

SU

1

1.00

– 1.80

Never

Used

NU

Extent of effectiveness of the

measures to address problems in teaching decoding skills

Relative

Values

Statistical

Limits

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols

5

4.21

– 5.00

Highly

Effective

HE

4

3.41

– 4.20

Effective

E

3

2.61

– 3.40

Moderately Effective

ME

2

1.81

– 2.60

Slightly

Effective

SE

1

1.00

– 1.80

Least Effective

LE

The weighted mean was computed to determine the weight and

order of the responses using the following formula according to Fraenkel et al (1994):

WM

= Sfn

N

Where :

WM = Weighted Mean

n = arbitrary value

S = summation

N = Total Number

of Cases

The t-test (Subong, 2006) was used to

determine whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis of the study.

The formula is as follows:

X1 –

X2

t comp =

Sx1 2 +

Sx22 1 1

n1

+ n2

– 2 n1 n2

Where :

n1 = number

of respondents answered by the first group

n2 = number of respondents answered by the second

group

X1 = mean of the first group

X2 = mean of the second group

?x1

= summation of the

processed responses of the first group

?x2

= summation of the

responses of the second group

Sx1 2 = summation

of the squares of the processed responses of

the first

group

Sx22 = summation

of the squares of the processed responses of the

second group