Chapter 2

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

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Research Design

            The researcher used the descriptive
survey method of research with the use of the questionnaire as main instrument
in gathering the needed data for the study.

            Descriptive research is a fact
finding with adequate interpretation. This method involves the gathering of the
data regarding current conditions and ascertaining what is typical or normal
under specific conditions (Sanchez, 1997).

Locale and Population of the Study

                This
study was conducted in the public elementary schools in La Trinidad District,
Schools Division of Benguet during the School Year 2017-2018. The respondents
of the study was composed of  twenty
three (23) experienced teachers and sixteen (16) new teachers with a  total of thirty nine (39)  Grade I teachers.

          The
distribution of the respondents is shown in Table A below.

 

 

 

Table
A

Distribution
of Respondents

Name
of Schools

Experienced
Teachers

New
Teachers

1.      
Alapang
Elementary School

1

1

2.       Alno-Kadorie Elem. School

1

0

3.      
Ambiong
Elementary School

1

1

4.      
Bahong
Elementary School

1

0

5.      
Balili
Elementary School

1

1

6.      
Balukas
Elementary School

1

0

7.      
Beckel
Elementary School

0

1

8.      
Benguet
SPED Center

1

1

9.      
Bineng
Elementary School

0

1

10.     
Bodiweng
Elementary School

1

0

11.     
Buyagan
Elementary School

1

2

12.     
La
Trinidad Central School

2

4

13.     
Lamtang
Elementary School

0

1

14.     
Lamut
Elementary School

1

0

15.     
Longlong
Elementary School

1

0

16.     
Lubas
Elementary School

1

0

17.     
Pagal
Elementary School

1

0

18.     
Pico
Elementary School

1

1

19.     
Puguis
Elementary School

3

1

20.     
Tacdian
Elementary School

1

0

21.     
Talinguray
Elementary School

0

1

22.     
Tawang
Elementary School

2

0

23.     
Wangal
Elementary School

1

0

TOTAL

23

16

Source: La Trinidad District Office, School
Year 2017-2018

 

Data Gathering Instrument

          The questionnaire was the main
gathering instrument used in this study. It was constructed and formulated
based on primary sources about reading and decoding skills from the Department
of Education and from articles and readings retrieved from the internet

The questionnaire was composed of the following parts: Part
I – Level of development of decoding skills of Grade 1 learners; Part II – Extent
of effectiveness of the strategies used in developing the decoding skills; Part
III – Degree of effect of the factors that affect the acquisition of the
decoding skills; Part IV – Level of frequency of the use of instructional
materials in teaching decoding skills; and Part V – Extent of effectiveness of
the measures to address problems in teaching decoding skills

Reliability and Validity of the
Instrument

               To test the reliability of the
questionnaire, a pretest was conducted to ten (10) teachers who were
enrolled in the  graduate studies in
Baguio Central University, Baguio City. Their responses were consolidated and
treated using the Kuder-Richardson Instrument Reliability Formula (Downie and
Heath, 1984). The formula is as follows:

            rK – R     =        
NS2 –
m (N-m)           

                                        S2
(N – 1)             

           Where :     N 
=  number of items in the
questionnaire             

                             m  =  mean

                            S2  = variance

The obtained coefficient reliability of 0.90 proved that the
questionnaire was highly reliable.

Data Gathering Procedure

          The
researcher sought  permission to float
the questionnaire to the respondents in La Trinidad district schools from the
Schools Division Superintendent of Benguet Division. Copies of the
questionnaire were floated personally by this researcher to the target
respondents. The duly accomplished questionnaire were retrieved after
sometime  by the researcher with the help
of some friends and co-teachers in the different elementary schools.

          The
collected questionnaire were sorted out and the teachers’ responses were
tallied for statistical treatment.     

Statistical Treatment of  Data

          The collected data were statistically treated using both

descriptive and inferential
statistics in order to facilitate their analysis and interpretation.

          The five-point relative values and its corresponding numerical
limits, descriptive equivalents and symbols were used to determine the level of
the responses on the following:

 Level of development
of the decoding skills of the Grade I learners

Relative
Values

Statistical
Limits
 

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols
 

5

4.21
– 5.00

Highly
Developed

HD

4

3.41
– 4.20

Developed

D

3

2.61
– 3.40

Moderately
 Developed

MD

2

1.81
– 2.60

Slightly
Developed

SD

1

1.00
– 1.80

Least
 Developed

LD

 

Extent of
effectiveness on the strategies on teaching decoding skills

Relative
Values

Statistical
Limits
 

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols
 

5

4.21
– 5.00

Highly
Effective

HE

4

3.41
– 4.20

Effective

E

3

2.61
– 3.40

Moderately
 Effective

ME

2

1.81
– 2.60

Slightly
Effective

SE

1

1.00
– 1.80

Least
 Effective

LE

               

Degree of effect of
the factors that affect the acquisition of the decoding skills

Relative
Values

Statistical
Limits
 

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols
 

5

4.21
– 5.00

High
Effect

HE

4

3.41
– 4.20

Moderate
Effect

ME

3

2.61
– 3.40

Slight
Effect

SE

2

1.81
– 2.60

Least
Effect

LE

1

1.00
– 1.80

No
Effect

NE

 

                Level
of frequency of the use of instructional materials in teaching decoding skills

Relative
Values

Statistical
Limits
 

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols
 

5

4.21
– 5.00

Always
Used

AU

4

3.41
– 4.20

Moderately
Used

MU

3

2.61
– 3.40

Often
Used

OU

2

1.81
– 2.60

Seldom
Used

SU

1

1.00
– 1.80

Never
Used

NU

 

                 Extent of effectiveness of the
measures to address problems in teaching decoding skills

Relative
Values

Statistical
Limits
 

Descriptive

Equivalent

Symbols
 

5

4.21
– 5.00

Highly
Effective

HE

4

3.41
– 4.20

Effective

E

3

2.61
– 3.40

Moderately  Effective

ME

2

1.81
– 2.60

Slightly
Effective

SE

1

1.00
– 1.80

Least  Effective

LE

 

          The weighted mean was computed to determine the weight and
order of the responses using the following formula according to  Fraenkel et al (1994):

          WM 
=   Sfn

                         N

Where :

          WM    = Weighted Mean

          n       =  arbitrary value

          S        = summation

          N       = Total Number
of Cases

          The t-test (Subong, 2006) was used to
determine whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis of the study.

          The formula is as follows:

 

                                                                       X1       –  
X2                                      

              t comp  =                  

                             Sx1 2  +   
Sx22              1         1

                                       n1
+ n2
– 2                 n1          n2

Where :

     n1      =   number
of respondents answered by the first group

 

     n2      =   number of respondents answered by the second
group

     X1       = mean of the first group

     X2       =  mean of the second group

     ?x1       
=   summation of the
processed responses of the first group

     ?x2      
=  summation of the
responses of the second group

 

     Sx1 2     = summation
of the squares of the processed responses of    

                  the      first 
group

    Sx22      =    summation
of the squares of the processed responses of                  the 
second group

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