Organizational Behaviour and Design
Paper on:

Human beings have psychological, ethical, and spiritualneedsthat
transcend the normal liberal agenda. Liberals have tended tofocus
exclusively on economic entitlements and political rights. But most people
need something more: We need to be part of loving families and ethically
and spiritually grounded communities that provide a meaning for our lives
that transcends the individualism and me-firstism of the competitive

People constantly experience emotions, yet in organizational theory, as in
organizational life, the exploration of emotionshasbeenlargely
deemphasized, marginalized, or ignored. Impersonal criteria for making
decisions and restraints on emotional expression at work have long been the
hallmarks of bureaucracy (e.g., Weber, 1946, 1981). Recent work has broken
this emotional taboo, exploring how certain organizations require the
expression of particular emotions at work to maximize organizational
productivity, an aspect of job performance that has been labeled emotional
labor (Hochschild, 1983).

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The process of organizing requires the coordination of employees’ behavior.

Because coordination may be imperfect:
(1) Direct and fully obtrusive:
such as giving orders, surveillance, and rules.

(2) Bureaucratic and somewhat less obtrusive: such as division of labor and
hierarchy; and
(3) Fully unobtrusive control of the cognitive premises underlying action:
in which the employee voluntarily restricts the range ofbehaviors
considered appropriate.

Focus on Emotions
Traditional bureaucratic, normative, and feminist organizations differ
regarding theirorientationstowardemotionalissues.Traditional
bureaucratic organizations echo Weber in emphasizing control by impartial
and impersonal rules that eschew the personal favoritism that can come with
individuating solutions to problems (e.g., Hellriegel and Slocum, 1979).

Traditional bureaucracies also attempt to keep the public domain of work
and the private domain of personal and family life separate, so that if an
employee experiences difficulties balancing work and familydemands,
responsibility for the problem and the solution lies with the individual
employee, not the employing firm.

Robert Weisberg, 2003) offered a modification of the feminist position on
these emotional issues. They introduced bounded emotionality as a limited
and pragmatic approach totheproblemofemotionalcontrolin
organizations, for a different formulation of bounded emotionality. as
situations,” although the acknowledged that such work feelings stem from
and affect emotions arising from one’s personal history and home life.

Bounded emotionality encourages the expression of a wider range of emotions
than is usually condoned in traditional and normative organizations, while
stressing the importance of maintaining interpersonally sensitive, variable
boundaries between what is felt and what is expressed. Bounded emotionality
has six defining characteristics: inter-subjective limitations, emergent
(rather than organizationally ascribed) feelings, tolerance of ambiguity,
heterarchy of goals and values, integrated self-identity, and community

Empowerment has emerged as a conceptual paradigm to guide theory, old and
current research, and practice in community psychology (Rappaport, 1981;
Swift & Levin, 1987). Community psychologists have been in the forefront in
articulating and evaluating collaborative processes designed tohelp
historically disenfranchised groups access health, mental health, and other
resources. The intent of these interventions is to create a psychological
sense of community that can break the cycle of oppression. Lesbians and gay
men are a substantial population which has been historically marginalized
by law, social policies, and social custom. However, the concerns of
lesbians and gay men have remained largely invisibleincommunity
psychology. For instance, a review of community psychology journals between
1965 and 1985 revealed four papers on lesbian and gay topics. These studies
found that lesbians and gay men are underserved in mental health, social
service, and health care settings. More recent reports describe social
support systems in university communities (D’Augelli, 1989a; Edelman, 1986)
and rural settings (D’Augelli, Collins & Hart, 1987; D’Augelli ; Hart,
1987), and the impact of the HIV epidemic on gay male communities (Martin,
Dean, Garcia ; Hall, 1989).

The career counseling needs of battered women vary across settings, over
time, and with their individual experiences of domestic abuse, challenging
counselors to accurately assess their needs and to balance immediate and
short-term safety needs with longer term career and educational pursuits.

Previous authors have described how SCCT might be applied to career
counseling with a variety of populations. Battered women are faced with the
particular challenge of the multifaceted deleterious effects of domestic
violence. Accordingly, we now present E. H. McWhirter’s (2003) empowerment
model as an appropriate framework for applying SCCT to assist this special

(a) Become aware of the power dynamics at work in their life context,
(b) Develop the skills and capacity for gaining some reasonable control
over their lives,
(c) Which they exercise,
(d) Without infringing on the rights of others, and
(e) Which coincides with actively supporting the empowerment of others in
their community”).

Recommendations for empoweringbatteredwomenandfordeveloping
interventions that address the variables and relationships defined by SCCT
are aligned with the five Cs of empowerment: collaboration, context,
competence, critical consciousness, and community.

Many barriers still exist in these societies that provide obstacles to
personal, family, and community development among lesbians and gay men. The
most powerful barriers are:
(1) Stresses related to coming out;
(2) Heterosexism; and
(3) Difficulties identifying with a community. Each barrier can serve as a
focal point for community psychologists to collaborate with lesbian and gay

Strategies to evade the stigma associated with homosexuality:
The process of coming out is a gradual eradication of these boundaries such
that one is known as lesbian or gay in all crucial life domains, including
family life, work, and community life. Lesbians and gay men maintain self-
esteem most effectively when they identify with and are integrated into a
larger lesbian/gay community (A. Richards, Glenda M. Russell; Stressor and
resilience factors for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals confronting antigay
politics; 2003). “Coming in” refers to this process of identifying with a
larger group of lesbian and gay people. Lesbians and gay men report more
primary support from partners and friends than from family Exploration of
lesbian and gay subcultures and socialization into its norms facilitate
learning the folkways, behavior, language, and structure of the community.

1.Heterosexism: “an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and
stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, identity, relationship,
or community”:
. With the stigma of mental illness removed, lesbian and gay people have
successfully confronted the organized mental health establishment
whose diagnoses disempowered them.

. Identification of other causes of societal disempowerment. The most
heuristic analyses have used the concept of Heterosexism “fuels the
disenfranchisement of lesbians and gay men by perpetuating the view
that their sexual orientation is inherently flawed, manifests both
cultural and psychological levels”. (Anthony R. D’Augelli, 2003).

2.A second strategy has been to raise the consciousness of lesbians and
gay men about the sources of their oppression
. Community Education “(1) invisibility and stigma; (2) the unique
nature of lesbian/gay personal identity; (3) the lack of group
identity from birth; (4) and low awareness of the history of lesbian
and gay communities”
. Campus Organizing: “As organizing in high schools, colleges, and
universities have been threefold:
(1) to create an environment which ensures equitable treatment and
freedom from harassment;
(2) to encourage research and scholarship in the areas of lesbian and
gay; and,
(3) to increase visibility of lesbian and gay students, faculty, and
staff on campus
. Religious Institutions: “Lesbians and gay men are demanding to be
accepted as full members in Mosques, churches and synagogues. Several
religious organizations for lesbians and gay men have been created,
such as Affirmation (Mormons)”
. Anti-Lesbian/Anti-Gay Violence: “Using Different multilevel approach
has been used to confront violence against lesbians and gay men”.

. Collaborations to Prevent Prejudice, Discrimination, and Violence:
discrimination and violence include documentation of its incidence and
patterns in a variety of contexts and settings, of its mental health
consequences, of institutional responses, and of prevention efforts”.

. Caring for the Community: Mental Health and Health Enhancement:
“Building and establishing lesbian and gays professional health-
related organization to provide supporttolesbianandgay
practitioners (youth and older)”.

. Confronting the HIV/AIDS Crisis: “confrontattitudes,develop
programs, and challenge political roadblocks, prevention of further
HIV infections, development and expansion of AIDS prevention models,
and research and education to address AIDS-related stigma and anti-gay

. Promotion of Civil Rights: “further researchdocumentingthe
inequities in civil rights experienced by lesbians and gay men;
promotion of public and organizational policies that provide legal
protection and nondiscrimination and fosterlegalrecognition;
research focused on the impact of social, legal and political
influences on lesbian and gay lives (e.g., effectsofanti-
discrimination legislation or the restrictiveness of child custody
legislation); and development of information programs onanti-
discrimination policies and on legal rights for dissemination to the
lesbian and gay communities on both local and national levels”.

. Gay Bar Scene “gay bars have functioned as a haven for them to meet
new friends and sex partners”.

. Homophobia Homophobia is defined as the irrational fear of people and
things related to lesbians and gay men (Weinberg, 1972), and it have
two kinds:
1. Externalized homophobia: comes from the heterosexual community
who dislikes or fear homosexuals. Conversely,
2. Internalized homophobia comes from within the lesbian or gay

. Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA): “Sexual abuse is defined as
any unwanted sexual experience , and substance abuse may
become a strategy used by childhood sexual victims to cope
with their pain”.

. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol Effects: “The experience of losing
friends to AIDS leads many lesbians and gay men to worry
constantly about their own health and the health of their
friends and their lovers, and thus, Because alcohol and
drugs may suppress the immune system, the relationship
between drinking, substance abuse, and AIDS has received
great attention in the gay community”.

. Coming-Out Process: “many gay people demonstrate fears and
anxieties about rejection from friends, families, and
society. For many these fears and anxieties are born of
actual, devastating experiences”.

Federal Laws:
Devolp new acts aware of LGB as:
. Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment
and Rehabilitation Act.

. Human Health and Human Services Act.

. In order to ensure that people with substance abuse problems actively
seek mental health services without worrying about being stigmatized
or criminalized.

. A client’s sexual orientation, especially if a client is a gay or
lesbian. Which means, keep in mind that disclosing a client’s sexual
orientation without the client’s consent can result in devastating

Community psychologists can fulfill that promise through applied research
and action to continue the tradition of empowerment started by members of
lesbian and gay communities. The complex influences of history, law, and
social policy on the psychological adjustment and community life of
lesbians and gay men in different communities provide rich opportunities
for community psychologists. Graduate training in community psychology must
incorporate a focus on lesbian and gay communities to take advantage of
these opportunities. Training a new generation of community psychologists
by involving them in the pressing problems of lesbian and gay life is the
best approach to ending the invisibility of lesbians and gay men in
community psychology. Community psychologists have much to give to lesbian
and gay communities in their continuing struggle to create a place for
themselves in the whole world society.

Community Building with Suicidal Behaviour
Bounded Emotionality
Empowering lesbian and gay communities (Historical Background):
EMPOWERMENI AND Social Cognitive Carrier Theory SCCT (Krista M. Chronister,
Ellen Hawley Mcwhirter, 2003):
Empowerment is defined as “the process by which people, organizations, or
groups who is powerless or marginalized:
(Zhankun Cheng, 2003):