CONSTITUTION 1956_THE ONE UNIT SCHEME:After a long-lasting struggle almost nine years, various problems came, several governments were dissolved, reports were rejected and then again modified but last not the least Pakistan finally got its first constitution in 1956. It was passed in the Sindh assembly building in Karachi. That was then the Parliament House of Pakistan (Government, 2015). But it proved to be huge disaster. Language was a real serious matter for the constituent assembly to deal with. At the time of independence more than seventy languages were spoken in Pakistan. Some of them were major. Moreover, except the North-Western Frontier Province (NWFP) all the provinces were named after their native speakers such as Balochistan meant as ‘the land of Balochs (Balochi as the native language)’, West Bengal was named after the Bengalis, likewise happened with Punjab and Sindh. The language has been the subject of recognition for the provinces before centuries. But the first constitution of the country recognized only Urdu and Bengali as the national languages of Pakistan. the assembly was of the view that Urdu was the language that was widely being used in the region as the second language that the provinces could use to inter communicate with each other. Bengali was given the favor due to its wide range of native speaker i.e. almost fifty-five percent of the population had it as. But the decision was not just for the smaller provinces and their autonomous recognition (Khan M. S., 2014)It introduced a new phenomenon known as ‘One Unit Scheme’. It tried to resolve the problems of the country with a scheme of unifying the whole Western Wing of Pakistan into a single unit that was to be called as “West Pakistan” and the whole Eastern Wing into another unit that was to be called as “East Pakistan” (Cloughley, 2016) A huge number of reasons were given to favor the decision of the merging the federal units into single unit. Whether that be the motive of measuring the expenditures of provincial assemblies, unifying the population culturally, diminishing of the differences among the people of different languages and cultures, etc. (Meher, 2015)The disastrous constitution came to end just after two years of its implementation in 1958. Military Rule begun. Provinces lost their somehow autonomy too.?OUTCOMES OF THE PAKISTAN’S UNIQUE FEDERAL SYSTEM 1970-72:The unique federal system proved to be a failure. Apart from being fifty five percent of the population of the country, East- Pakistan ever enjoyed the state of autonomy under the flag of Pakistan. The salt on the wound was the brutal of the Pak armed forces. Though the province of the East Pakistan consisted more population than the rest of the provinces in total, the capital of the country was placed far away from them in Karachi, Sindh. In the initial stage of constitution making they demanded more seats in the Lower House of the legislature and claimed it on behalf of their huge population. Although, they got that in the constitution 1956 but the rude attitude showed by the Western Wing between 1947-56 in giving their due right, initiated the growth of a poison tree in the hearts of Bengalis. Bengalis became distrustful toward the West Wing. The constitution of 1956 was dissolved in 1958 by the President of Pakistan. First Martial Law was declared. East Pakistan lost the so-called autonomy as well. Conditions became bitter after the passing of the constitution 1962. That brought up the Martial List in Pakistan. According to which all the subjects of powers i.e. forty-nine, were made under the authority of the federal government and the provincial governments were given no subjects of power to exercise. This was the common problem of all the federal units but since East Pakistan was on a far hand from the Centre. Maybe this could be the reason of the growth of the misunderstandings between the both wings. The poison tree of hatred grew in the hearts of East Pakistani peoples against the West specially towards the province of Punjab that is where most of country’s military personnel and bureaucrats belong to.On the 25th March 1969, second Martial Law was promulgated, the powers of Gen. Ayyub Khan fluctuated toward Gen. Yahya M. Khan. He gave relief to the people of Pakistan by promising to bring elections in the country. He detailed that the generals of the Army Staff were not hungry of rule but were willing to bring forth the country back towards the Civil Rule. Yahya declared to bring back the country back to the tracks of federalism. He showed a green signal to East Pakistan that this time theirs demands of economic autonomy were going to be fulfilled and promised an equal division of the income.As he promised, the elections were held in 5th of Oct 1970. PPP (being in West Pakistan) and Awami League 9being in East Pakistan) were the two prominent political parties. It was the first that general elections were held in Pakistan. By the end of the year the results of the election came, and it was not something that was imagined to be happened. Almost seventy two percent of the National Assembly i.e. 167 of 169 seats (almost whole of the East Pakistan) won by the Awami League. PPP could just manage to win 81 seats.But before the elections 1970 Mujeeb-ur-Rehman had already announced a Six Point Plan that proposed the idea of dividing Pakistan into two different independent states. That would make the Centre authority over the provinces very weak. He also announced to be held the first meeting of the new government formed will be held in Dhaka not in Islamabad.But Bhutto had the claim that Mujeeb should not be allowed to form any government without taking the PPP into to. Because Mujeeb had won all the seats from just East Pakistan and he had no support from the rest of the country.Yayha was satisfied that he would become the President of Pakistan after the formation of the new government and he asked both the parties to collaborate with each other and form a single government. But actually Mujeeb had the right to become the elected Prime Minister of the country.The result came in the shape of rebellion by the Bengalis. To oppress that Operation Search Light was introduced that caused the very brutal massacre of the Bengali ethnics in East Pakistan. Bengalis fought back along with the help of Mukthi Bahani and India. Finally, on the 16th of December 1971 Bengalis got their Bangladesh and Pakistan lost his half.GENERAL ZIA’S FEDERAL SYSTEM 1977-88:The forth martial-law imposer in Pakistan  PAKISTANI FEDERALISM V/S INDIAN FEDERALISM.The Republic of India established just with a gap of a single day on 15th of August 1947 than Pakistan. According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, Pakistan was declared as a dominion for the Muslims of the subcontinent. The Article 8th of the Indian Independence Act advised the both countries to adopt the Government of India Act 1935 as their Interim Constitution till then they are able to make their own constitution for the country (Cabinet, 1947). Pakistan went up with it with certain changes. But instead of only adopting the Government of India Act 1935, India made an extract of the Indian Councils Acts that happened in years of 1858, 1861, 1892, 1909 and the Government of India Act of 1919, 1935 and the Indian Independence Act 1947 that was as well (Shahid, Federalism in Pakistan: Of Promises and Perils, 2015). ?THE 18TH AMENDMENT:Before the elections 2008, PPP had vowed to the Pakistanis to bring back the constitution of 1973 in its original form. This promise was fulfilled on 20th of April 2010 as the 18th Amendment made in the Constitution 1973.  (Shah A. , 2012)It was the first real attempt in the 63 years of Pakistan that constitution of the country was going to challenge the over-centralized hegemony of Federal government in the country. The Centre had been enjoying control over the legislations and resources since the independence. Almost all the taxes were under the Federal. Provinces only got funded after every five years as National Finance Commission. Ninety-one pc of theConclusion:Federalism was considered as the best remedy for the political harmony in Pakistan. But Pakistan as been always failed in implementation of real federal system in the country. The relationships among the Centre and the provinces grew to be bitter and bitter since than the beginning of Pakistan.

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