Executive Summary


Texas Engineering Company (TEC) has submitted a proposal to
design the exterior frame of a three story commercial office in San Antonio
Texas. The front frame is 160 ft x 50 ft. It is composed of three bays
(50′,60′,50′) as well as three stories (20′,15′,15′). This frame was designed
to meet its factored loads. All members are deemed adequate using structural
analysis methods. This structure is subjected to wind loads, dead loads, roof
live loads, and three live load cases to account for different occupational
scenarios of the building. Different exterior and interior beams/columns were
used to meet member adequacy, This will greatly reduce the price of the overall
design. All members used A992 Grade 50 steel. The connections are moment
bearing which are necessary to withstand moment loads as well as the lateral
wind loads. Due to the size of the bays large beam members are needed. The
largest members were W14X550. These were used in the middle first and second
floor bays. Structural engineering is an essential part of construction. A
basic design of a structural model includes the beams, columns, connections,
and loadings. The foundation of the structure is designed to withstand the
total distributed weight of all members and loads applied on it. Keeping it in
mind, the first thing needed before members can be designed is the arrangement
of the building. Depending on cost efficiency as well as proficiency; design
format of pillars and sections are arranged. From this point, the dead and live
loads are given based on the occupational use of the building. Industrial
building may need to withstand larger loads than those of commercial or
residential. Lr and wind loads are based on the geographical location. These
will change because of the maximum environmental climates on that area. After
the demand loads are determined factoring must be done. This ensures that even
if the maximum demand loads are ever reached there will still be a factor of
safety in the design. In order to find the extreme factored load cases the Load
Resistance Factor Design was used. LRFD is established by AISC to ensure that
members be designed to withstand loads larger than those demanded. Designed
members are factored to reduce the maximum assumed force that each member can
withstand.Visual Analysis is used to calculate the loads using all possible
load combinations. Different members may be governed by different load
combinations. Interaction of the forces on a member will amplify the force load
applied on it. For this all members must be designed to withstand the
interaction of the different shear, axial, and moment forces on the beam or
column. Loading will vary based on different sections on the frame. Different
shapes must be chosen based on their location to reduce unnecessary over designing
of the members.

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The application of visual analysis and other structural
programs has changed the industry by helping engineers in the design of safer
and larger building in a more efficient way. With these certified licensed
programs engineers are able to reduce the time spent on calculations. Other
programs such as excel, Visual Analysis, and AUTOCAD aid in finding the design
loads of the members. Applying knowledge of structural steel design and
knowledge of computational programs appropriate designs of structural steel members
are rendered.  A design process has been
shown to explain the design of a three story frame. All members are made of
A992 Grade 50 steel. Given the total height and width of the frame, the height
is 20ft for the first floor and 15ft for second and third floors and the widths
are 50ft for the exterior and 60ft for the interior beams. Load combination
2,3.1,3.2, and 4, all provided provided in the Segui text, have been tested in
order to obtain the governing load case of each member. The different full live
load and live load cases have been shown in the bottom figures two through four
for a better understanding and view of the governing cases. Using visual
analysis has helped by allowing to change members and experience the different
demands and load cases that can be obtained with each different scenario.

Visual analysis also has been used to provide a final live load case in which
the extreme loads are experienced as well as for obtaining our maximum demands
and interaction results for each member. The results obtained have been backed
up by hand written calculations of beam members one, two, five, and four as
well as for columns one, two, three, seven, and eight. In this report excel has
been used to create tables to clearly demonstrate results obtained in visual
analysis and calculations made. It has also been used to list the different
load combinations as well as listing the nine different members used with the
corresponding  W shapes.