Filles du Roi Between 1663 and 1673,1200 Filles du Roi or “King’s Daughters” emigrated to New France under the sponsorship of the French government as part of the overall strategy of strengthening the colony until it could stand on its own without economic and military dependence on FranceThrough the early 1670s however, men of marriageable age far outnumbered the women of marriageable age. Unable to find a wife in Québec, a great number of male immigrants returned to France after their three-year term of service expired.The recruiting of Filles du Roi took place largely in Paris, Rouen and other northern cities by merchants and ship outfitters.The cost of sending each Fille du Roi to New France was 100 livres: 10 for the recruitment, 30 for clothing and 60 for the crossing itself –the total being roughly equivalent to $1,425 in the year 2000. In addition to having the costs of her passage paid by the state, each girl received an assortment of practical items in a case: a coiffe, bonnet, taffeta handkerchief, pair of stockings, pair of gloves, ribbon, for shoelaces, white thread, 100 needles, 1,000 pins, a comb, pair of scissors, two knives and two livres in cash. Upon arrival, the Files Received suitable clothing and some provisions.All of the Filles du Roi first landed at Québec City where 560 remained, with 133 being sent to Montréal and 75 to Trois-Rivières. While awaiting marriage, they were lodged in houses in dormitory-style settings under the care of a female chaperone or directress where they were taught practical skills and chores to help them in their future household duties.When selecting a Fille du Roi, the suitor looked beyond outward appearances and considered the practical attributes of a bride that would be adapted or disposed to the rigors of the colony. The preference seems to have been for peasant girls because they were healthy and industrious, as opposed to city girls who were often considered lightheaded and lazy.Every Fille du Roi had the right to refuse any marriage offer that was presented. In order to make an informed decision to accept a would-be husband, the girls asked questions about the suitor’s home, finances, land and profession.After agreeing to marry, the couple appeared in front of a notary to have a marriage contract drawn up, and the wedding ceremony generally followed within 30 days. For the Filles du Roi, the average interval between arrival and marriage was four to five months, although the average interval for girls aged 13 to 16 was slightly longer than fifteen months. In addition to any dowry of goods that the bride may have brought with her from France, each couple was given an assortment of livestock and goods to start them off in married life: a pair of chickens and pigs, an ox, a cow and two barrels of salted meat. The King’s Gift of 50 livres is believed to have been a customary addition to the dowry, Once married, there was an incentive to have large families. A yearly pension of 300 livres was granted to families with ten children, rising to 400 livres for 12 children and more for larger families.In November 1671, Intendant Jean Talon in a letter to the King wrote that the birth of six to seven hundred babies that year confirmed the fertility of the country. Talon advised that it would not be necessary to send more girls the next year in order for the colonists to more easily give their daughters in marriage.For many years, it was supposed that all but a handful of the filles du roi were from the Salpêtrière orphan hospital in Paris. While the number of the king’s charges who came from Paris was significant, nearly every region of France can claim at least one of these young women. Indeed the origins of the filles du roi are not as challenging to determine, for the place of birth of these brides is present on all but eight percent of the marriage certificates, according to Landry. Due to the differences in their definitions of the filles du roi, the precise geographic distribution of these young ladies varies from historian to historian. Lanctôt and Dumas agree that the principal regions that produced these immigrants were Île-de-France, Normandy, Aunis, Champagne, and Poitou. The table below illustrates the distributions of the filles du roi by region according to Lanctôt and Dumas.The Filles du Roi helped established one of first generation of Canadians. Unmarried women sponsored by the king to immigrate to New France between 1663 and 1673.The Filles du Roi (King’s Daughters) were unmarried women and sometimes widows who were sponsored by the king to immigrate to New France between 1663 and 1673. Because private interests gave priority to bringing over male workers, the French government and religious community attempted to correct the gender imbalance in the colonies.Even though the first women arrived in Canada in the 1630s, only the 800 or so who arrived during the first 11 years of royal government in New France were called Filles du Roi.The first female immigrants to Canada came either with their families or as nuns.Private recruiters, religious communities and landowners also sponsored small groups of unmarried women, hoping that they would start families. The number of eligible women was not nearly enough to fulfill the needs of the colony.The king took charge of recruiting, clothing and covering the cost of the royal wards’ travel within France and across the Atlantic.He gave each an allowance of 100 pounds: 10 pounds in recruitment fees, 30 pounds to gather a modest trousseau and 60 pounds for each woman’s passage fee. The women — orphans with very little money — were recruited from the regions of La Rochelle, Rouen and Paris. Most were from urban areas. They were approximately 16 to 40 years old when they arrived, with an average age of 24. Between 1667 and 1672, many women (41%) were given a royal dowry of 50 livres tournois (pounds) in addition to their trousseau. Some received even higher amounts (100 or 200 pounds). In years of financial hardship, the dowry of 50 pounds was replaced with provisions from the king’s storehouses in the colony.As in France, these women were expected to be able to feed and clothe their families. Each received a hope chest containing personal accessories: a comb; two coiffes (a type of hood), one made of taffeta and the other of gauze; a belt; a pair of hose; a pair of shoes; a pair of gloves; a bonnet; shoelaces; and four sets of laces.These items were difficult to find on the shores of the St. Lawrence. The chest also contained sewing supplies: about 100 needles, a case and thimble, white and grey thread, scissors, many pins, two knives, and cloth fine enough to make handkerchiefs, collars, wimples and pleated sleeves.Upon their arrival in Canada, the women received room and board until they were married. Almost all were married quickly. According to administrative reports, many were ill prepared for the arduous life in rural Canada. However, they rose to the challenge: because of the sparse population and the wealth of food resources in their new home, they were able to have many children and to live longer than their peers who had stayed in France.The Filles du Roi, who had many offspring, are the maternal ancestors of thousands of North Americans.Because they came from the French-speaking regions and institutions of France, they contributed to Louis XIV’s longed-for standardization of the French language in 17th-century Canada.For a period of 7 years,  the king sent several thousand women to New France at his expense, most of them from the Paris area.They were poor, abandoned and had no future in France. The king gave them a dowry between 50 and 300 livresThe recruiting was often carried out by guardians, such as Anne Bourdon.Two years later, 40 married couples lived there. 37 of these brides were filles du roi.There were rumours that some of the girls sent to the colony had been prostitutes in France, but Pierre Boucher defended the honour of his new compatriots.It was hard to live a scandalous life in such a small colony.What these young women had in common was their poverty. Their fertility was proof of their good health.It was hard to live a scandalous life in such a small colony.What these young women had in common was their poverty. Their fertility was proof of their good health.This policy of increasing the birth rate did not take long to produce results.Catherine Ducharme and Pierre Roy dit Saint Lambert had 18 children. Marie Hatainville, a widow with 11 children under the age of 15, married for a fourth time to a widow with 7 children. Marie-Claude Chamois and François Frigon had 7 children. They are the ancestors of every Frigon in North America.Had to come from Catholic background.Marie Claude arrived in New France in 1670 and she brought 100 livre in clothing and personal belongingsIn 1663 the British colonies had 18 times as many settlers as New France because the British had a farm based colony where the men brought their wives over and then had families whereas the French were mostly fur trappers and missionariesThe British colonies were growing but the French colonies had stagnated because there was only one woman for every 6 menApproximately 800-1000 Filles du Roi came to Canada between 1663 and 1673 and 1/10 of them died during the three month voyageThe Fille du Roi were brought to Canada under the church’s supervision and with the support of King Louis XIV to populate the colonySome of the Filles du Roi  were Parisian beggars and orphansAdministrators’ reports indicated that many were not prepared for the harsh life in New FranceEach women received a hope chest containing personal items that were difficult to find in New FranceThe hope chest contained a comb, two hoods, a belt, a pair of hose, a pair of shoes, a pair of gloves, a bonnet, shoe laces, four sets of laces, 100 sewing needles, a case and thimble, thread, pins, 2 knives and fine cloth.Quick marriages were highly encouraged. Incentives were given to encourage procreation.Annual rewards of up to 400 livres were given to families of 12Bachelors were penalized by taking away hunting and fur trading privileges to encourage them to start a familyIn spite of the difficult living conditions, the Filles du Roi thrived because of the abundance of food and resources in New FranceThe Filles du Roi most likely had a better life in New France where they were valued much more than when they were living in FranceThe Filles du Roi had large families because of the incentives and because they were healthy______________________________________________________________________________Anc = Ancestor of Nazaire Perrault (P) or Demerise Simoneau (S)Rel = Relationship to Robert PerraultYear = Year of arrivalAge = Age at arrivalFille du RoiAncRelYearAgeHusbandFrançoise Brunet*S7ggm166328Martin DurandLouise GargottinP7ggm166326Daniel Perron dit SuireCathine PauloP8ggm166318Étienne CampeauMarguerite PeuvrierS,P7ggm166323Jacques Meneux dit ChâteauneufCatherine PilletP8ggm166313Pierre Charon dit DucharmeMarie ValadeP7ggm166316Jean-Baptiste CadieuxMarie BoileauS7ggm166516Jean JolinAnne CoutureS7ggm166524Jean Moreau dit LagrangeMarie DebureS7ggm166521Jean Bernard dit HinseFrançoise PiloisP7ggm166526Antoine Cassé dit LacasseMarie Charlotte De CoppequesneP7ggm166630Jean GateauFrançoise ConflansP7ggm166718Charles RancinMarie DevaultP6ggm166718Antoine Coderre dit ÉmeryMarguerite FoyeS7ggm166729François DumasMarie-Madeleine OlivierS8ggm166725Thomas RousseauUrsule-Madeleine TurbarS6ggm166718François HubertFrançoise BaiselatP7ggm166822Pierre François Marsan dit LapierreMarguerite CharpentierP7ggm166827René Meunier dit LaraméeLouise Faure dite PlanchetS7ggm166832Pierre GagnéMarie Catherine BaillonP7ggm166924Jacques Miville dit DeschênesAnne PerraultS7ggm166923Pierre BlaisMarie-Madeleine NormandS7ggm166918Alphonse Morin dit ValcourtMarie-Barbe MénardS7ggm166920Antoine Vermet dit LaformeCatherine SuretP7ggm166918Nicolas FâcheElisabeth AubertS7ggm167024Aubin Lambert dit ChampagneMarie Madeleine DesprésS7ggm167017Nicolas Audet dit LapointeMarie DuboisP7ggm167028Michel Brouillet dit LavioletteFrançoise DurandS7ggm167019Jacques BeaudoinMarie HubertS7ggm167015Nicolas FournierJeanne FresselS7ggm167017Etienne JacobHenriette CartoisS7ggm167120Michel Audebot dit BellehumeurMarie-Louise BolperS7ggm167119François MarceauNicole PhilippeauP7ggm167116Mathurin Gauthier dit LandrevilleMadeleine RaclosP6ggm167115Nicolas PerrotMarie Denise MarierP8ggm167319Jean QuennevilleMarguerite RousselS7ggm167327Mathurin Ducheron dit Deslauriers

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