Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are living organisms whose genetic material has been artificially manipulated in a laboratory through genetic engineering, or GE. Genetically modified crops have been engineered to resist disease and insects, to tolerate cold or drought, or to withstand the application of herbicides. Genetically modified livestock could soon produce many desirable products. GMOs are controversial, though, because many people worry that genetic modification can cause dangerous unintended consequences. (Author(s): Simon Kay 1; Guy Van den Eede 1)Genetically modified organisms are genes, made up of a molecule called DNA. DNA contains instructions that tell an organism how to function and what structures to build to make itself. Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s genes to give it a different set of instructions. This is done by adding, subtracting, or changing genes. Sometimes the extra genes come from different organisms. (Ed. Amy Hackney Blackwell and Elizabeth Manar)A GMO will combine the traits that naturally come from its genome, its complete set of genetic code, with the traits that come from the modified code. For example, a genetically modified tobacco plant might look and taste just like a natural tobacco plant, but be inedible to the insects that eat unmodified tobacco plants.(McIntosh, Philip.)This lead the researcher to investigate the substances that make or influence GMOs particularly in growing plants. This will further investigate how these substances affect the environment. It has been said that genetically modified organisms could be what actually is impacting people’s body not just weight wise but also health wise. As “blogs on demand” claims that this experiment actually does impact the environment, plants, and people because of the way that we produce and consume the genetically modified organisms.On the other hand, naturally growing plants only use water and manure. Thus, naturally grown plants are considered non – Genetically Modified Organisms. Businessmen are in favor and encourage farmers to use substances that trigger fast and efficient growing plants that increases yield or products, longer shelf life of organisms and shorter growing period. However, health professionals are against it as they believed and hypothesized that consumption of these genetically modified plants and dairy animals lead to unexplained diseases and disorders.There are many ways of growing plants. But for my experiment I will be using this exact method during the planting stage only. The common method is planting naturally in a fertile soil. However, in this study the researcher use the hydroponics system. Hydroponics is the process of growing plants in sand, gravel, or liquid, with added nutrients but without soil. This is important because the elimination of soil means that unwanted build ups of undesirable concentrations of nutrients can be evaded. Nutrient toxicity is just as important to crops as nutrient deficiency, and both can be easily avoided with hydroponics. Hydroponics also reduces the impact of environmental factors. Which means that all the different compounds that are not added into the essential parts of the experiment aren’t going to be inside of the experimental space because the hydroponics traps those elements out. This is also important because with hydroponics the plants are grown in an inert growing medium and a perfectly balanced pH adjusted nutrient solution is delivered to the roots in a highly soluble form.There’s many different viatamins that many humans have in there body such as vitamin A, C, D, E, K and B. But the only vitamin that I will be focusing on is vitamin C by using orange juice.  Vitamin C is already known to be an antioxidant, which helps plants deal with stresses from drought to ozone and UV radiation, but until now it was not known that plants could not grow without it.Cellular respiration, the process by which organisms combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules, diverting the chemical energy in these substances into life-sustaining processes and discarding, as waste products, carbon dioxide and water. Organisms that do not depend on oxygen degrade foodstuffs in a process called fermentation. This is important because of the way that this is what we will be looking at while we are conducting our experiment we as researchers know that cellular respiration happens in both humans and plants but photosynthesis happens in only plants and not humans. There are many specific processes in cellular respiration such as: Glycolysis. In glycolysis, glucose—a six-carbon sugar—undergoes a series of chemical transformations. In the end, it gets converted into two molecules of pyruvate, a three-carbon organic molecule. In these reactions, ATP is made, and NAD+  is converted to NADH. Then Pyruvate oxidation. Each pyruvate from glycolysis goes into the mitochondrial matrix—the innermost compartment of mitochondria. There, it’s converted into a two-carbon molecule bound to Coenzyme A, known as acetyl CoA. Carbon dioxide is released and NADH is generated. Then Citric acid cycle. The acetyl CoA made in the last step combines with a four-carbon molecule and goes through a cycle of reactions, ultimately regenerating the four-carbon starting molecule. ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced, and carbon dioxide is released. Then finally Oxidative phosphorylation. The NADH and FADH2 made in other steps deposit their electrons in the electron transport chain, turning back into their “empty” forms (NAD+ and FAD). As electrons move down the chain, energy is released and used to pump protons out of the matrix, forming a gradient. Protons flow back into the matrix through an enzyme called ATP synthase, making ATP. At the end of the electron transport chain, oxygen accepts electrons and takes up protons to form water.

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