I.      Introduction

 

Electricity has a prior importance in
life. We cannot even think about a day without electricity. That much influence
has there with electricity in our life. Electricity is the key component to modern
technology and without it most of the things that we use every day simply could
not work and would never have been created. Electricity saves lives and allows
people to live longer. So not only are we are more aware and intelligent
society but we have become much healthier. Our lives are improved no end by
electricity, and it is certainly true that most people’s living quality would
be significantly reduced and affected if electricity were to somehow disappear.
But we are having some misconceptions about electrical accidents and some facts
about electricity. Young and new workers have a high risk for work related
injury compared with more experienced workers. 
In this project we deal with monitoring the parameters like supply
voltage, current, power factor, temperature, humidity, earth resistance, also
we aim at providing overvoltage, overcurrent protection (MCB) along with RCCB
implementation all in one device that too electronically, which decreases
response time and provides higher degree of safety.

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II.   AIM OF THE PROJECT

 

In this
project our aim is to give the industry level safety and to monitor the
electrical parameters for home like Supply voltage, current, power factor,
temperature, humidity, Earth value. Also we aim at providing Overvoltage protection,
overcurrent protection (MCB) along with RCCB implementation all in one
device that too electronically, which decreases response time and provides
higher degree of safety.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III.  Block diagram

 

 Schematic overview of total home monitoring
system

Since it is a protection device this device is
installed in series with the energy meter as shown below. The device is named
as Industry safety monitoring device for home or ISM Device henceforth.

Fig. Schematic overview of
home monitoring system

Block Diagram of ISM device

 

Fig. Block diagram of ISM
device

 

 

Internal
block diagram of ISM device

The incoming AC supply is constantly monitored by the ISM Device
using the CT (Current Transformers) as the sensors. In total two CT are
utilized in order to determine the Residual current between Line and neutral
and line current consumption as shown below:

Fig. Internal diagram of
ISM device

 

IV.  CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

 

Circuit Diagram of ISM
system

Fig. Circuit diagram of ISM device

                                                                                                                                        

 

 

 

1. Power
Supply

Incoming AC
supply is used to convert into DC supply by using Switch mode power supply
(SMPS). We get 12VDC, 1Amp supply from SMPS which is used to power the Entire
system. Earthing is connecting to device body. SMPS can take voltage
fluctuations and provide smooth DC output.

 

2.
Micro-controller

ATmega2560 is used to process the device parameters. It has
54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog
inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB
connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains
everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a
computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get
started.

A0 A1 A2 A3 are analog channel ADC of microcontroller

D0 D1…. Are digital channel of microcontroller

 

3. TFT Touch Screen

TFT screen enables to see the parameters and control the
process it has 480 x 320 Resolution, RGB 65K true to life colours, TFT screen
with integrated resistive touch panel, 4 pin TTL serial interface, 16M Flash
memory for User Application Code and Data, On board micro-SD card slot for
firmware upgrade, Visual Area: 73.44mm  (L)×48.96mm
(W).

Adjustable Brightness: 0~180 nit, the interval of
adjustment is 1% , 5V, 500 mA DC recommended power supply, 5V145mA power
consumption.

 

4. Temperature humidity sensor

Low cost, 3 to 5V power and I/O, 2.5mA max current use
during conversion (while requesting data), Good for 20-80% humidity readings
with 5% accuracy, Good for 0-50°C temperature readings ±2°C accuracy, No more
than 1 Hz sampling rate (once every second)

Body size : 15.5mm x 12mm x 5.5mm, 4 pins with 0.1″
spacing.

 

5. Contactor

L&T contactor of 230V, 32A is used since single phase allowed
till 7.5KW, this contactor does all the work. SL100 is BJT used to turn ON-OFF
the contactor.

 

6.
Sensors

Earth value can be measured by measuring the AC voltage
between Neutral and Earth pins. We use Step up transformer to maximize the
Minimum AC voltage developed, since ideally 0V develops between Earth and
neutral. This AC voltage is step up at output, rectified and then attenuated by
100K trimmer potentiometer to adjust microcontroller working voltage of 5V,
understands variations in 0-5V only. The voltage developed is proportional to
the resistance of earth and neutral and should be less then 2VAC. The input
voltage is measured by using step down transformer by converting input 230V
into 5VAC then rectifying it and feed it to microcontroller. The variation in
input voltage is measured by this sensory network.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

V.    MATERIALS AND ITS SPECIFICATIONS

 

Table 6.1
Materials and its Specifications

Parts list

Quantity

Specifications

Meanwell SMPS

1

220VAC in-12VDC/1A out

LM7805

1

5V/1A Regulator

T0220 Heatsink

1

Aluminium Heatsink

3pin 5mm pitch connector

2

3 Pin port connector

Device Housing

1

Metal box    

CT1

1

5A-5mA Ratio CT

CT2

1

5A-5mA Ratio CT

Step-up T/F

1

1Vin 10Vout Step-up T/F

Step-down T/F

1

230Vin 5Vout Step-down T/F

Diode LN4148

4

Diode

SL100

1

BJT Transistor

Resistor 10K ¼ watts

1

Resistor 1/4W

Trimmer 100K

2

1/4W Potentiometer

5.1V Zener Diode

4

Zener Diode

DHT-11

1

Temperature & Humidity Sensor

ATmega2560

1

Microcontroller

Capacitor 10µF

4

Filter capacitor

L&T Contactor

1

Contactor

3.5´´TFT Touch Screen

1

Screen touch function

 

 

VI.   FUTURE
SCOPE

1.     
Prepaid
Energy meter

2.     
Global
System for Mobile communication (GSM) update

3.     
Internet
Of Things (IOT) interface

4.     
Implementation
of fault correction system.

 

 

 

 

VII.            
Conclusion

 

In this project we deal with monitoring the
parameters like Supply voltage, current, power factor, temperature, humidity,
Earth resistance, also we aim at providing Overvoltage, overcurrent protection
(MCB) along with RCCB implementation all in one device that too electronically,
which decreases response time and provides higher degree of safety.

 

 

Acknowledgment

 

We shall be failing in our
duty, if we will not express our sincere gratitude to all those distinguished
personalities with the help of whom we have successfully completed our project.
My deep gratitude to Dr. Arun Kumar, PRINCIPAL, VIVA INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, who always been playing a great role in all round development of
the student. My deep gratitude to Prof. Bhushan Save, THE HEAD OF
ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT and our project coordinator Prof. Prajakta Patil who
always been playing a great role in all round development of the student. I would
like to thank my Project Guide Prof. Pratik Mahale for his valuable
guidance, advice and constant aspiration to our work, teaching and non-teaching
staff for their kind support, help and assistance, which they extended as and
when required. Last but not the least I wish to thank my friends for providing
technical and moral support. I hope that this project report would meet the
high standards of all concerned people and for their continuous co-operation
during the whole period of period of project that helped us in enhancement of
this project.

 

References

 

1
“A Study on Electrical Accidents and Safety Measures” by Rolga Roy,  AswathyVijaya Kumar, Rakhi R Nair.  India International Journal of Latest
Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET) Vol. 5

2″The Level of Awareness on Electrical Hazards
and Safety Measures among Residential Electricity User’s in Nigeria” by Saba,
T. M., Tsado, J. PhD, Raymond, E. PhD Adamu. Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

3″Temperature, Humidity,
Ventilation and Lighting in the Workplace” by
g:aww7textfactfilegen5.doc.

4″Electrical Safety Handbook” 4th edition by John Cadick,
P.E,     Dennis K. Neitzel, Al Winfield.

5″Study
on Inherent Safety-based Industrial Accident Risk Management Method” by Wu Zongzi
(China Academy of Safety Science and Technology, Beijing 100029, China).

 

 

Author