In the
recently, major research has been focused on key areas such as tool path
planning, tool orientation selection, and selection of tool geometry. Many
researchers have lectured tool path planning using traditional methods such as
ISO-planar or ISO parametric methods (Lu, 2013).
Results of these methods create paths that achieve certain accuracies, or
surface characteristics, but that may not be optimal with respect to other
process parameters, such as production time. To improve performance of traditional
methods (Mori, 2011).

Misra was verified “Due to the
inherent nature of the motion of the tool, tool paths are always a series of
straight lines and arcs whereas the actual sculptured surface is a surface of
varying slope and curvature. Thus, the sculptured surface is approximated by a
series of straight lines and arcs for machining, and the machining goal is to
get as close as possible to the design surface.” (Misra, 2014) and the several
systems for making cutter location (CL) data for machining of such sculptured
surfaces require some important human decisions such as determination of the
precise interval between successive toolpaths (Liu, 2010). After the cutter
location(CL) data are created, which showed in Table 1, post processing is done to get machine executable codes
for actual production. A tool path interval that is too large can result in a
rough surface whereas one that is too small can increase the machining time,
making the process ine?cient. Due to the complex geometry of the surface, tool
body and tool holder restriction with the surface position many limitations on
tool path generation. Smaller tool lengths and the vertical motion of the tool
might make some regions isolated in the case of 3-axis CNC machining (Luo, et al.,
2017).

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Term

Definition

Notation Used

CC-Point

Point where tool touches the design surface

Ci

CL-Point

Tool center location

Li

Feed-forward Distance

Distance the tool travels in a single continuous
tool motion

CC: along CC-points
cl: along
CL-points

Side-step Distance

Distance between two consecutive parallel tool
paths

CC: along CC-points
cl: along CL-points

Feed-forward error

Deviation of the tool path from the actual de-sign
surface

Scallop Height

Height of material left between two consecutive passes of the tool

H

Table 1: Basic definitions

C. Chen recommended about tool path generation
that the representative schemes for tool path generation follow the principle
of ISO-parametric, non-constant parametric. The ISO-parametric tool path
generation creates an ISO-parametric tool path by fixing one surface parameter
and changing the other surface parameter. The cross-feed distance between two
adjacent ISO- parametric tool paths remains constant throughout the paths. The
non- constant parametric tool path generation intersects family of parallel
planes with the part surface and each intersection curve becomes a tool path (Chen, et al.,
2004).