In the northwestern part of Indian subcontinent locates Kashmir. Kashmir is a region with a scope of 222,236 sq. km. It is said that it is the Heart of Asia, with historical links to both South and Central Asia. Kashmir shares borders with India, Pakistan, China, and Afghanistan and with a small stripe of 27 miles with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Dr. Ghulam Nabi Fai, 2017). The region is renowned to be one of the most beautiful regions of the world and once a famous tourist attraction during the 19th century. The Kashmir’s rule is in the hands of three different stake holders or countries, namely – India, Pakistan, and China. As shown above the figure 1.1, China has control over the north-eastern areas, while Pakistan has control over the northwestern part, and with the largest area to control which equates to nearly 50% is the India which has rule over the central and southern portion of the land of Kashmir. Kashmir is a home for Buddhist, Hindus and later on dominated by Muslims. However, regardless of variety in religion, it has never been seen as a conflict amongst the people who resides in the region. Evidently in the history, they lived harmoniously, respected their own traditions and even made peaceful shrines and saints they worship. Kashmir is a peaceful place until the British withdrawal from the south Asia in 1947. India and Pakistan agreed on terms regarding the partition of Indian subcontinent – Kashmir. The rulers of the states were given the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or with certain reservations to remain independent. In the article of Sumit Ganguly, “Explaining the Kashmir Insurgency: Political Mobilization and Institutional Decay” – he analyses the history of the conflict between India and Pakistan and as he said it goes like this: “Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of Kashmir, was Hindu while most of his subjects were Muslim. Unable to decide which nation Kashmir should join, Hari Singh chose to remain neutral. But his hopes of remaining independent were dashed in October 1947, as Pakistan sent in Muslim tribesmen who were knocking at the gates of the capital Srinagar.” Since the appeal of Hari Singh to the Indian government and fled to India, the first war between India and Pakistan broke-of. On January 1, 1948, India referred the dispute to United Nations. India took the issue to UN, with confidence that they will win the plebiscite. However, Pakistan ignored the mandates of UN and still continued fights over India. By that time Pakistan already has control over Kashmir. The following year, January 1, 1949 to be exact, there was an agreed ceasefire with 65% of the territory was then now under the India and the remaining control was with the Pakistan. The ceasefire was intended to be temporary but the Line of Control remains the de facto border between the two countries. Sadly, the insurgency didn’t stop there. Numerous wars, ceasefire, and still strife never ended. Though the issue wasn’t given much spotlight in the years 1970’s because both India and Pakistan deals with domestic problems. It was 1999 that the conflicts risen again when they exchanged artillery fire.