In case of political regions, that consist of liberal
institutionalists and realists arguing about the role played by regimes. Both
schools of thought agree that the international system is without a ruler
(anarchic) and is not without rules (anomic). Hence, this regime can only be
realized in the form of a government of its own. It has a set of rules, social
and cultural norms which dictate behavior. T is I this form that it governs and
interacts with society. Regional integration calls for countries entering a new
premise of governance where enhancing regional integration is the primary goal
and there are regional institutions and regulations created to ensure and
reinforce that. These integration schemes usually require joint decision-making
and the development of the concept of common foundations. There is a collective
implication of a regional international regime. According to Krasner, (1983), “a
set of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making
procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a dedicated region of
international relations”. Work based on regionalism and regional consolidation
in recent years has included two primary groups, i.e., those who were ‘strongly
influenced by neo-liberal institutionalism and regime theory’ and those falling
into the group referred to as ‘new regionalism’ (Acharya and Johnson, 2007:9).

There is extensive literature explaining the diverse
dimensions of regionalism in the international ground. These include
theoretical perspectives, the historical development of regionalism, the
emergence, and regionalism in different contexts. (Nye, 1968; Hurrell, 1995,
2003; Fawcett, 2004, 2008; Russett, 1967; Mansfield and Milner, 1997; Hänggi,
2000; Yi, 2007; Börzell, 2011; Travers, 2004 etc.).

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There has also been a revived interest in this
literature which has also contributed to more physical developments in the
field. T (Palmer, 1991; Fawcett and Hurrell, 
1995;  Mansfield and Milner,
1999;  Hettne, 2002; Hettne et al.,
1999-2001;  Telò 2001;  Vayrynen, 
2003)

 ‘Regionality’
is  a condition that incorporates the historical,
geographical, economic, cultural and social conditions that are encased within
a region (cited in Travers, 2004). Collectively, regions are special areas
inside the globe enclosing a set of independent sovereign nations.

The International Relations or International Political
Economy have adopted multiple approaches to explain, describe, and explore the
idea of regionalism.  Some scholars have
produced vast physical literature to compile the theoretical word surrounding
this concept. Hurrell (1995) divides up all the approaches into systematic
theories such as neorealism, structural interdependence and globalization,
neo-functionalism, neoliberal institutionalism, constructivism and, domestic
level theories such as regionalism and state coherence, regime type and
democratization. Schulz et al. (1999) presented four approaches; neorealism,
functionalism and institutionalism, regional economic integration and the new
regionalist approach. Mattli (1999) classified the approaches into two
groups:  political science approaches; functionalism,
neo-functionalism and intergovernmentalism and economic approaches; (customs
union theory, optimal currency area and fiscal federalism.

Democracy has also been an important element which
accelerates the process of regional integration. Even though it is a
requirement for regional integration to happen, research has shown that among
all countries that opt for regional integration, the ones who are most active
and perform well are the ones whose governments are democratic. A few examples
for this include the Mercosur agreement and how the performance of Brazil and
Argentina with the change in their regimes. Another example is that of the
Middle East where less democratic governments are less willing for regional
integration. (PHAM, 2008)In case of political regions, that consist of liberal
institutionalists and realists arguing about the role played by regimes. Both
schools of thought agree that the international system is without a ruler
(anarchic) and is not without rules (anomic). Hence, this regime can only be
realized in the form of a government of its own. It has a set of rules, social
and cultural norms which dictate behavior. T is I this form that it governs and
interacts with society. Regional integration calls for countries entering a new
premise of governance where enhancing regional integration is the primary goal
and there are regional institutions and regulations created to ensure and
reinforce that. These integration schemes usually require joint decision-making
and the development of the concept of common foundations. There is a collective
implication of a regional international regime. According to Krasner, (1983), “a
set of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making
procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a dedicated region of
international relations”. Work based on regionalism and regional consolidation
in recent years has included two primary groups, i.e., those who were ‘strongly
influenced by neo-liberal institutionalism and regime theory’ and those falling
into the group referred to as ‘new regionalism’ (Acharya and Johnson, 2007:9).

There is extensive literature explaining the diverse
dimensions of regionalism in the international ground. These include
theoretical perspectives, the historical development of regionalism, the
emergence, and regionalism in different contexts. (Nye, 1968; Hurrell, 1995,
2003; Fawcett, 2004, 2008; Russett, 1967; Mansfield and Milner, 1997; Hänggi,
2000; Yi, 2007; Börzell, 2011; Travers, 2004 etc.).

There has also been a revived interest in this
literature which has also contributed to more physical developments in the
field. T (Palmer, 1991; Fawcett and Hurrell, 
1995;  Mansfield and Milner,
1999;  Hettne, 2002; Hettne et al.,
1999-2001;  Telò 2001;  Vayrynen, 
2003)

 ‘Regionality’
is  a condition that incorporates the historical,
geographical, economic, cultural and social conditions that are encased within
a region (cited in Travers, 2004). Collectively, regions are special areas
inside the globe enclosing a set of independent sovereign nations.

The International Relations or International Political
Economy have adopted multiple approaches to explain, describe, and explore the
idea of regionalism.  Some scholars have
produced vast physical literature to compile the theoretical word surrounding
this concept. Hurrell (1995) divides up all the approaches into systematic
theories such as neorealism, structural interdependence and globalization,
neo-functionalism, neoliberal institutionalism, constructivism and, domestic
level theories such as regionalism and state coherence, regime type and
democratization. Schulz et al. (1999) presented four approaches; neorealism,
functionalism and institutionalism, regional economic integration and the new
regionalist approach. Mattli (1999) classified the approaches into two
groups:  political science approaches; functionalism,
neo-functionalism and intergovernmentalism and economic approaches; (customs
union theory, optimal currency area and fiscal federalism.

Democracy has also been an important element which
accelerates the process of regional integration. Even though it is a
requirement for regional integration to happen, research has shown that among
all countries that opt for regional integration, the ones who are most active
and perform well are the ones whose governments are democratic. A few examples
for this include the Mercosur agreement and how the performance of Brazil and
Argentina with the change in their regimes. Another example is that of the
Middle East where less democratic governments are less willing for regional
integration. (PHAM, 2008)

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