Invention of role of metabioitics in
controlling diverse physiological functions opens door for a safe and cheap
treatment of diseases. But use of these metabiotics is limited because source
of these metabiotics i.e. Probiotics can make negative effects in vivo like
platelet aggregation, secretions of toxic substances, haemolytic uremic
Microbes are not only the pathogens but are our friends also. These
microbes affect almost every activity of human. Use of the probiotics is also a
result of analysis of the interaction between microbes and human being. These candidates
of prokaryotic origin (probiotics) are widely used with antibiotics against
superbugs, for anxiety, depression, neurogenesis and most threatful disease of
my state Punjab i.e. growth of neoplastic cells (cancer) etc. These microbes
may affect physiological functions by those secretions which affects immune
cell like Pro-inflammatory mediators or IL-6. But probiotics use is not so common
that we can take bacteria instead of medicine tablets due to many reasons. Main
1) Probiotics have to encounter
stress during food processing and in host body.
2) For immunocomplex patients.
3) Direct adverse effect by these
probiotics via their secretions or their structure like platelet aggregation,
secretions of toxic substances, haemolytic uremic syndrome. Some genes of probiotic
may be inducing by host cell signals.
First problem is solved by
development of pharmabiotics i.e. genetically engineered probiotics stable in
stress conditions also. However other limitations or problems cannot be solved
by till date effectively because we do not know the mechanism of adverse action
as well as genes responsible for positive affect and for negative affects also.
We will be able to solve this problem by interfering with either mechanism or
knock down the genes responsible for adverse effects. Now a day’s gene knock
down may affects bacteria survival ship also because we do not know genes responsible
for bacteria survival and for adverse effects. The most convenient method for
finding genome responsible for negative affect is comparative genome analysis.
Each and every
activity of an organism is control by its genome so their must be genomic part
of probiotic bacteria which is responsible for its survival and for our benefit
also on the other hand part of same genome is responsible for negative affects
also.so identification of the this two types of genomic part may be a revolutionary
step toward the use of pharmabiotics. Comparative genome analysis does not
provide only evolutionary information but functional information also. For performing
genome analysis we have to identify microhabitat of probiotic bacteria, close
relatives of probiotic bacteria at microhabitat, different bacteria with which
probiotic bacteria interacts for its survival. With the use of various
bioinformatics tool Comparative genome analysis may be performed at 2 levels.
gives examples which support the idea that organisms living under similar
conditions have shown some similarity in their response to utilizing the
resources. In a similar way genes responsible for probiotic bacteria for their
growth in a habitat can be
identified by comparing the genome of probiotic bacteria with the bacteria that
naturally exist at that habitat. Identification of these genes may be possible
by comparison between some distinct groups also (supported by ref)
genomes responsible for its interactions may be identified by comparative genome
analysis of probiotic bacteria and natural existing bacteria (close to
probiotic bacteria) living in microhabitat
of probiotic bacteria because they already interacts with those bacteria to
which a probiotic bacteria have to interact in future.
are identification of genes responsible for various activates of a bacteria
either harmful or beneficial for us and also for quorum sensing and quorum
quenching. This will further helps in detection and elimination of genes
responsible for toxic material in those probiotic bacteria which secrete toxic
material in addition to beneficial products, isolation of beneficial genes from
those bacteria whose structure or peripheral proteins do not allow their use as
probiotics and combined with naturally inhibited bacteria’s genome which are
safer for immunocomplex persons also.