uses various tools and techniques like work breakdown structure risk
management, scenario planning, etc. These tools and techniques act like a
guideline for he manager which enables them to set and define goals and
objectives, select the best course of action, optimum utilization of resources
i.e. men, machine, money, material, method and time; check the progress of the
project and make changes in the plan or scope as and when required. Marriott
used these tools and techniques to make their bedding program a big success.

required for a successful project are communication, motivation, negotiation,
time management, risk management, etc. These skills help to bridge any gaps in
the project to complete the project on time. Marriott used communication to
overcome the challenges faced due to cultural and time differences. Its
employees were motivated to reduce employee turnover which added to their cost
as new employees needed training. These skills also helped the project manager
to plan the course of action and anticipate the possible risks. It helped the
manager to identify various challenges and plan how to overcomes these

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A project is a unique event which has a unique  output, starting point and a
finishing point. Management functions are planning, organizing, leading and
controlling. Project management cycle starts with initiating, planning,
executing, monitoring and controlling and lastly completion of the project.


Task 4

Team building – A team may be made up of people from various cultures,
with different needs and ambitions. The project manager must understand the
needs of each team member and direct all the employees to the achievement of
organizational goals. To work in a team, the team members must trust each other
and work together as a single unit .

4.      Training
and development – training and development is essential for the wellbeing of a
company. Effective training will increase employee productivity and it will in
turn generate more revenue for the company. It helps the employee to stay
up-to-date with the latest technology and systems (Management
Study Guide, n.d.)

3.      Delegation
– Delegation plays an important role in people management. When work and
responsibilities are assigned to the employees, they get a clear vision of what
is to be done. Delegating authority will make the employees feel responsible
and will give a sense of trustworthiness. Employees are accountable for the
work and tasks assigned to them.

2.      Motivation
– Motivation is one of the important people management skills. Motivation gives
the employees a sense of appreciation and belongingness. When the employees are
motivated, their productivity increases which will benefit the company.
Motivation will also reduce or eliminate employee turnover.

1.      Communication
– Project managers must communicate effectively with its employee.
Communication must be clear so that the employees understand what exactly is
expected from them. It will give a clear picture of the company’s vision and
mission. Clear communication will also help to avoid confusion and doubt.

c.       People Management Skills


5.      Flexibility
– The project manager should be flexible to make changes in the scope as and
when required. At Marriott’s, new requirements and changes were evaluated
during the implementation of the project.

4.      Delegation
– The project managers delegate some authority and responsibilities to its
subordinates in a downward direction. It will not only get the work done but it
will also develop a sense of belongingness. Marriott established two teams who
were responsible for full service and limited service brands.

3.      Communication
– Communication is one of the important element in every business. Marriott was
a diverse company with people working across time zones, different cultures and
languages. The project teams made use of conferences, emails, videos, photos,
etc. to remove the barrier of communication so that the business runs smoothly
without confusion.

2.      Motivation
– To motivate and retain its employees, Marriott’s trained its employees using wordless
videos and photos on how the beds should be done. This helped the employees to
understand the work and the various processes and perform effectively and
efficiently without any confusion.

1.      Build
vision – When Marriott’s faced problems with their bedding program, it created
a lot of chaos not only within the company but also with other hotels. They had
to stay focused on their goals. They built their vision and identified the
various problems that had to be tackled if they wanted to achieve their goal.
They identified the most effective solution which would help them stay firm
towards its vision.

b.      5 Key Principles of Leadership


4.      Work
Breakdown Structure – Work breakdown structure helps in the planning process
where in main tasks are broken down into smaller unit tasks for effective
planning and implementation. Marriott established teams to carry out various
tasks. These teams were responsible for identifying concepts, conduct market
research, test products, etc. When all these tasks were combined, it resulted
in the success of the key task i.e. implementation of the bedding program.

3.      Budgeting
– The budget helps to set a plan of action. It helps to measure the budgeted
results. The bedding program aimed to change the look and increase the comfort
of guests in hotels. But this brought about a lot of challenges. The budget
manual helps to give orders, delegate work and authority, etc. to meet the
budgeted results. It enhances planning, optimum utilization of resources,
motivation, coordination and estimation.

2.      Scenario Planning – Marriott faced a lot of problems
with their bedding program. They identified the different problems and set precise
procedures to deal with the challenges. They implemented various techniques
which helped them to boost their communication, procurement and distribution,
negotiation, etc.

1.      Risk
Management – Properties received their orders piecemeal. These properties faced
a risk of storage difficulties. To manage this risk, Marriott contracted an
external distribution company to handle the procurement and distribution
process. There were various distribution teams which were responsible for
tracking shipments and estimating gaps weekly. These teams checked the
production schedules and made plans as to how to report the gaps.

a.       Tool and Techniques

Task 3

Critical Success Factors

12 Essential Project Management Skills

6.      Cost
management – To save money, Marriott introduced linen reuse program which also
helped to conserve energy and water (Landau, 2017).

5.      Working
under pressure – Project teams had to work under pressure, but they managed the
problems well

4.      People
management – Marriott faced employee turnover. To retain their employees, it
gave training to its employees with the help audio-visuals, conference calls,

3.      Time
management skills – To reduce the time lag, Marriott’s swiftly outsourced its
procurement and repackaging process to an external distribution company.

2.      Problem
Solving Skill – Marriott’s project teams identified the various problems the
company was facing and implemented the best solution which benefited the

1.      Communication
– There should be clear communication to avoid confusion among the employee.
Marriott’s project team provided training to employee using photos and videos.

Management Skills and Knowledge

Marriott introduced an intranet
website where information could be easily posted and accessed. Also, conference
calls were conducted during ordering process and the shipment of linen to
ensure clear instructions and no confusion.

5.      Employee
Turnover – Property management teams needed to be trained for bedding change
and ordering process. They also needed to train staff to overcome the language
barriers between managers and housekeeping. During this period the properties
faced staff turnover.


To save cost, Marriott
introduced linen reuse system where in the linen could be changed only when
needed upon the request of guests. This helped hotels to conserve energy and
save money.

4.      Cost
– Some newly established properties had to face financial burden since the
bedding standards needed them to dispose their newly purchased linen.


To tackle this problem,
Marriott contracted an external distribution company which received, repacked
and shipped the bedding to the various hotels.

3.      Time
Management – Marriott bedding was manufactured and distributed from companies
which were overseas. This created a time lag of six months between the order
and delivery time.


overcome this challenge, the project teams introduced training videos which
were wordless which helped to demonstrate how the bedding should be used with
the help of photos.

2.      Communication
– the project teams had to work with people with different cultures, languages,
government regulations and across different time zones. In such situation
effective communication became a big challenge.


solve this problem Marriott asked all properties some simple questions and then
created a database which helped the procurement team to estimate the cost of
each hotel.

1.      Monitoring
and Controlling – Marriott had a bedding standard before the Bedding Program in
2004. Hotels were of different ages and hence there was a variation in the
bedding specifications. So many different variations indicated that the project
scope was a big challenge.

Bedding Program faced a lot of challenges across the globe and it had to
identify the problems and formulate strategies to overcome these problems.


Task 2

It improves the internal relation among
the employees. As the employees work closely in teams to achieve their goal,
they develop the sense of team spirit. This improves coordination and

It helps to improve communication between
all the people involved in the project. Communication flows from the top level
to lower level and vice versa. It enhances the organizational breakdown structure
and helps the employee to identify their duties.

It helps in reducing time by eliminating
unnecessary tasks. It closely monitors all the tasks and identifies which task
is lagging and then works towards completion of the task on time. It uses
techniques like Gantt chart and Pert to monitor the time taken by tasks.

It enhances customer satisfaction by
meeting the requirements of its customers. Customers are happy when they
project is on time and within their budget.

It improves flexibility by helping the
business to change strategies as and when they identify new strategies which
could benefit their business even more. You can also make changes or
modifications in the project scope.

It helps to give a clear vision and focus
to the company. This improves the Project Managers ability to select the best
tasks which will help their business.

Project Management helps to reduce cost by
controlling cost and allocating the resources efficiently. It helps to make
optimum utilization of resources with minimum wastage. Reduction in cost then
helps to increase its profit margins.

b.      Importance
of Project Management

a.       Doug
Milis, CEO of Global Construction states that project management has helped
them to reduce the cost by improving
the ability to select the best project
which is beneficial for the success of the business. Project management is also
important as it has helped the company to improve
its productivity by helping it to get things done and quickly respond to
the market changes. There is a better
internal co-ordination in the business as Marie Scott, Director of PMO,
aligned the projects with its business strategy which helped them to have
consistent processes. Project management has helped Doug to have a clear focus and vision which has made
him confident that they’ll be successful in the future (Research Gate, 2013).

Task 1