before and after Darwin
In the beginning was God.And everything was simple and easily
comprehensible. You had God to worship, the Ten Commandments to follow and
nothing to worry about. Because God was responsible for everything and He
was supposed to take care for you if you truly believe in Him and pray hard
enough. And there were no questions without an answer because everything
was encoded in one word – God. And although man knew he was part of
something greater than himself, he was feeling important because God had
created everything to serve man and man only.There were no questions
about the meaning of life, no speculations on morality, no doubt about the
right way in life.

Some things never change. But some things do change. George Bernard
Shaw said that: “The reasonable man adapts himself to the conditions that
surround him… The unreasonable man adapts surrounding conditions to
himself… All progress depends on the unreasonable man.” And Charles
Darwin was one of these unreasonable men, who carry the progress on their
shoulders.

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He took the ideas and findings of early scientist, the observations of
different farmers and his own personal experience about the diversity and
fitness of life on earth and put together the foundation of modern
evolution theory used by scientist today. Darwin presented a vast amount of
evidence showing that all living things ultimately descended from a few or
even one type of ancestor. The greatest naturalist also presented his idea
of how this “descent with modification”, or evolution, works; it was called
“natural selection.” Natural selection was considered a force for the
alteration of species. In essence, in the battle for their survival, only
those individuals best adapted to their environment are more likely to
survive, reproduce and pass on their genes. Favourable or beneficial
mutations of species are favoured and retained, while harmful or useless
ones are rejected and lost. So, across generations, different species
undergo adaptations through the gradual accumulation of useful variations –
those which help them better survive and successfully reproduce in their
particular environments. Over time, in a series of tiny, steady, and
imperceptible steps, beneficial mutations accumulate and the result is an
entirely different organism. Not just a variation of the original, but an
entirely different creature. Suppose a member of a species developed a
functional advantage (it grew wings and learned to fly). Its offspring
would inherit that advantage and pass it on to their offspring. The
inferior (disadvantaged) members of the same species would gradually die
out, leaving only the superior (advantaged) members of the species. Natural
selection is the naturalistic equivalent to domestic breeding. Over the
centuries, human breeders have produced dramatic changes in domestic animal
populations by selecting individualstobreed.Breederseliminate
undesirable traits gradually over time. Similarly, naturalselection
eliminates inferior species gradually over time. Darwin proposed “sexual
selection” to explain the accentuation of features, not always essential or
even beneficial to survival, that increase a species’ chance of securing a
mate and breeding. Moreover, sexual selection can produce individuals with
such elaborate ornaments that they must be either energetically costly to
develop, costly to maintain, or even lead to a direct survival cost for the
individual that bears the ornament. For example, the male peacock’s immense
and lurid tail attracts female peacocks. But imagine a population that has
not yet evolved elaborate sexual ornaments compared to the population,
which is derived from the original stock, but males have now evolved
elaborate ornaments. In the derived population, many males die due to
reasons of sexual selection owing to their ornaments. The average fitness
of individuals in the initial population is higher because fewer males die
selective deaths compared to the number of males that die selective deaths
in the sexually-selected population. And the result is declination in the
average chance of survival of the population over time.

Darwin’s ideas turned the world upside-down and changed the way we
understand ourselves and everything around us radically. His most infamous
idea was that human beings evolved from apes through a series of gradual
steps. It’s here that modern evolutionary psychologists pick up from where
Darwin left off. Humans and all their associated habits and behaviours,
they suggest, can be explained as products of evolution. He implied that
even attributes, previously identified as uniquelyhuman,suchas
intelligence and emotion could come about through natural selection.

Before that no one could challenge God’s authority but Darwin did it
and was very successful in this undertaking, although it wasn’t his
intention. He did believe

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