Mawqufalayh   Receipient or beneficiary of Waqf

maysir One of the fundamental prohibitions in Islamic finance, maysir is usually taken as meaning gambling, but its wider definition is gaining things too easily, without labour, or where one party loses (without any benefit) while another gains.

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Mecca, Makkah A city in modern-day Saudi Arabia, situated about 70 km (42 miles) from the west of the country and the Red Sea. It is of unique significance to Muslims in that it is the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad and the location of the Ka’baa and the Masjid al-Haram, the world’s largest mosque, which houses it. According to the Qur’an it was at a cave near the city of Mecca where Muhammad received his first revelation from Allah, via the Angel Gabriel. Muhammad and his followers were forced out of the city in 622 ce, and they went to Medina. After being blocked from re-entering Mecca (whose inhabitants had not embraced Islam) on a pilgrimage, Muhammad declared his determination both to enter the city and to avoid bloodshed so close to the place of pilgrimage. Eventually, an accommodation was made with the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which allowed pilgrims to visit the site. In current times, under Saudi Arabian law it is illegal for non-Muslims to enter the city.

Meccan Of or pertaining to Mecca. The descriptive name given to the 87 surah which were revealed in Mecca.

Medina, Madinah A city in modern-day Saudi Arabia, home to Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Prophet’s Mosque), which houses the Prophet Muhammad’s tomb. The city is approximately 330 km (200 miles) north of Mecca and is roughly 140 km (88 miles) from the Red Sea. It was to Medina that Muhammad went after being forced out of the city of his birth, Mecca. Muhammad himself renamed the city al-Madinah l-Munawwarah, which means ‘The Radiant City’, but it is commonly known as Medina, even though this simply means ‘city’; it was formerly called Yathrib. Like Mecca, the city of Medina is in modern times out of bounds to non-Muslims.

Medina Charter, the Charter of Medina, the Constitution of Medina A peace treaty drafted by the Prophet Muhammad to end the fighting and animosity between all the major tribes in the city, including Christians, Jews, Muslims and pagans.

Medinan Of or pertaining to Medina. The descriptive name given to the 27 surah which were revealed in Medina.

Mehdi, Mahdi The Islamic redeemer, who will visit the Earth a certain length of time before the Day of Judgment, accompanied by Jesus, and right the world’s wrongs. Depending on which tradition is followed the duration of his stay will be seven, nine or nineteen years.

mekteb, mekteb (alt. sp. of maktab) An elementary school.

Melayu Islam Beraja The Malay Islamic monarchy, officially the national philosophy of Brunei.

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