methods and techniques, such as in-depth interviews. Moreover, using the
case study NBRO (Nike related running community) as a methodology, focuses the
participants’ sensations – inner thoughts, experiences, and opinions (Ahmed, 2008). The Epistemological
stance used in the Kornum et al (2017) study on brand identity, is constructionism.
Constructionism defined as “the view that all knowledge and therefore all
meaningful reality as such is contingent upon human practices, being constructed
in and out of interaction between human beings and their world and developed and transmitted within an essentially social context”
(Crotty 1998 , as cited in Klapper, pp 356 (2011). While, the ontology in the first theoretical
perspective – Brand as identities, focuses on a subjectivist viewpoint; the
second perspective – brand as knowledge, takes its focal point in objectivism. The
article by von Wallpach & Kreuzer, (2013) on brand knowledge arrives at the phenomenon as a
retrieval from an embodied cognitive perspective, making the epistemological
assumption that cognitive representations result from the conscious and
unconscious brand experiences involving sensations; rather than, the more
traditional cognitivist view, which assumes that brand knowledge primarily
consists of rational and verbal representations. The key foundational concepts
in this theoretical perspective is the notion that brand experience is
conceptualized as cognitions, sensations and behavioural responses evoked by
brand- related stimuli that are part of a brands identity and design von
Wallpach & Kreuzer, (2013)


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Brand Identity is in line with Louro and Cunha’s projective paradigm (2001), which is focused on
the strategic dimension of branding. Brands are seen as central platforms for
developing and enhancing the strategic aim of an organisation. Within this
perspective, the firm’s management should aim at creating and maintaining a
strong brand identity by constructing coordinated marketing strategies across multiple
markets (Aaker, 1996; Louro,
& Cunha, 2001). Brand management’s main focus is on the enhancement of brand positioning
and meaning, designing organizational process that support the creation,
development and protection of brand identity. Brand knowledge, is in line with
Louro and Cunha’s adaptive paradigm (2001), in which consumers are seen as central determinants in
the creation of brand meaning. Accordingly, brands should be constructed to
pursue consumer-centred role,e.g. by signalling quality and ultimately
providing symbolic value. This perspective is adopted by functional or
market-centered organisations, which should possess superior outside-in
capabilities in order to elaborate a coherent brand strategy on the bases of
the information gathered from their external environment. According to this
perspective, a successful brand management should be able to balance consumes’
expressed desires and needs with the brand image, which includes essence,
vision and all permanent qualities around the