Objective: The aim of this review is to give an overview
of important research articles about the role of tumor derived exosomes in the
formation of the pre-metastatic niche and to give an overview of the level of
proof this gives
Design: The study design is a
systematic review.
Method: For the literature search
the online database pubmed was used. This resulted in 128 articles whereof 69
reviews after excluding the reviews and 45 other articles according to my
exclusion criteria, 14 articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in
this article.
Results:
Discussion:
Conclusion:

 

Introduction

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exosomes
are extracellular vesicles ranging in size from 30 to 100 nm, derived from
luminal membranes of multivesicular bodies. They are composed of a lipid
bilayer and contain transmembrane proteins and enclose cytosolic proteins,
lipids, DNA and RNA, furthermore they contain surface molecules that allow them
to be targeted to recipient cells. {Tkach et al. 2016} {hoshino et al. 2015}

Extracellular
vesicles were first described 35 years ago {Pan et al. 1983.} {Harding et al.
1984} and it was only in 2010 that the hypotheses of functional delivery of
miRNA in exosomes to a target cell was demonstrated {Pegtel et al. 2010}. By
communication through functional delivery, exosomes play a role in normal
physiological and pathological processes {Lee et al., 2012}. An important pathological
process were exosomes play a role is tumor pathogenesis.

The
formation of the pre-metastatic niche is a series of events that prepares
future metastatic sites for the influx of tumor cells, the successful engrafment,
survival and growth of the metastasis, in this way creating a ‘landing dock’
for future metastatic growth {peinado et al. 2011 / the secreted factors}. This
suggests that metastasis is a predetermined event with the target destination
already defined. {peinado et al. 2011} This is important because most cancer
death is because of metastasis. Demonstrated in Kaplan
et al. is that bone marrow derived hematopoeietic progenitor cells express
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1 before actual metastasis. {Kaplan
et al.}
important molecules considered playing a role in creating a suitable
microenvironment are s100A8, s100A9, IL-1, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, IL-6 and VEGF. {peinado et al. secreted factors en diens bronnen}

Schrijf meer over interactie BMDC
exosomes en pre-metastatic niche

the
evidence of the role of tumor derived exosomes in the progression of cancer is
still very poor and even though it seems that an important way of tumor
metastasizing is in forming the pre-metastatic niche the exact role and the
evidence there of is still not very clear.
Eventhough some research seems really important it is still difficult to
determine how much proof this really is. A research group started the
reproductibility research, redoing major researches and seeing if it is
actually possible to get the same result. They registered their report {Lesnik, 2016 #122} of Peinado et al. 2011, an
important article supporting the theory of a role of exosomes in the
metastasizing of cancer and in specific in the formation of the pre-metastatic
niche. It is important to find out what the actual proof is of our theory that
exosomes play a role in the formation of the pre-metastatic niche. This review
will answer the question; What is the in vivo evidence for a role of tumor
derived exosomes in the forming of the pre-metastatic niche?.  The aim of this review is to give an overview
of important research articles about the role of tumor derived exosomes in the
formation of the pre-metastatic niche and to give an overview of the level of
proof this gives.

Author