Over the years, major psychological disorders have existed
in all cultures and across all time periods while causes and treatment of
abnormal behavior have varied widely across cultures, times periods and worldwide
views as well.
Back then there were three main
traditions that characterized a person have having abnormal behavior which
included the Supernatural Tradition, the Biological Tradition and the
Psychological Tradition. The Supernatural concept was having deviant behavior as
a battle of “good” and “evil” which was thought to be caused by demonic possession,
witchcraft, and sorcery. Treatment for the bad spirits were typically harsh,
usually resorting to exorcism, torture, beating and crude. When having to deal
with mass hysteria; a condition in which a large group of people exhibit similar
physical or emotional symptoms such as anxiety or extreme excitement, everyone involves
would participate in Saint Vitus’s dance and any other cultural traditions.
Individuals affected would dance hysterically through the streets for hours,
days, and sometimes even months depending on how bad things were until they
collapsed due to exhaustion or died from heart attack or stroke.
The Biological Tradition,
psychological disorders are attributed to biological causes. Hippocrates
determined abnormal behavior as a physical disease. Hippocrates gathered
information and directed investigations to demonstrate that disease was a
natural procedure; that the signs and indications of a disease were caused by
the normal responses of the body to the disease process; and that the main part
of the doctor was to help the common protection of the body to beat the
metabolic irregularity and reestablish wellbeing and harmony to the organism.
There became a time when the Renaissance brought new outlooks of direct
knowledge of ancient Greek medical text. Hippocrates became known both for the
Hippocratic Corpus writings and through the works of Galen. Galen a philosopher
who practiced biological science and studied medicine extended Hippocrates
work. The Hippocratic tradition linked abnormality with brain chemical imbalances.
During this time treatments remained crude.
The last of the three dominant
historical conceptions of abnormal behavior was the Psychological Tradition,
which included disorders that were attributed to faulty psychological development
and to social context. This tradition kicked off the rise of moral therapy. Moral
treatment was a new way for the Asylums to treat patients. With the start of
this more humane treatment of institutionalized patients, Asylum’s implemented
this treatment involving various aspects of the patient’s life and treating them
with more logical manners. These institutions set out a goal to inspire these
patients troubled minds, encouraging and reinforcing social interactions.
The Psychoanalytic Theory was
created by Sigmund Freud back in the mid eighteen hundred. Freud simply believed
that patients could be cured by making conscious of their unconscious thought
and motivations, his theory was what he thought was the structure and function
of the mind.