Parents play an important role in the integral
development of their child. They perform various practices, techniques and
styles to successfully rear and mold them.

 Parenting
styles are defined as parenting behaviors and attitudes that set the emotional
climate of parent child interactions (Seigler, Deloache, & Eisenberg,
2006). According to a study done by Baumrind (1973), there are three kinds of parenting
styles, which include, authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting and
authoritative parenting. Authoritarian parenting emphasizes blind obedience,
stern discipline and controlling children through punishments- which may
include the withdrawal of parental affection. Authoritarian parents tend to be
high on the amount of parenting control and demandingness they exert onto their
child and tend to use harsh punishment more frequently (Seigler, et al., 2006).
Permissive parenting is characterized by parents who are warm and loving but
fail to control or expect mature behavior from their children (Baumrind 1973). Permissive
parents try not to assert their authority and impose few restrictions or
demands on their children (Dewar, G. 2014). The third parenting style which is
the authoritative parenting is a more balanced approach in which parents expect
their child to meet certain behavioral standards. They follow rules of conduct
and fairly demanding but also encourage the child’s independence and self- expression
(Dewar, G. 2014). Furthermore, Macoby and Martin (1983) expanded Baumrind’s
typology to include the uninvolved parenting. According to them, uninvolved
parenting are like permissive parents in their failure to enforce standards. But
unlike permissive parents, uninvolved parents do not exhibit any degree of
either responsiveness or warmth, nor do they exercise any degree of control or
demandingness.

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According to various studies, the parenting
styles mentioned above are strong predictors of adolescent achievement outcomes
(McBride-Chang & Chang, 1998; Bronstein & Duncan, 1996; Wintre &
Yaffe, 2000). Findings have indicated that a significant relationship exists
between the type of parenting style and academic achievement of the student. More
specifically, authoritarian and permissive parenting styles have been associated
with (a) poor academic grades, (b) college adjustment, and (c) self-esteem of adolescents
(Lambom, Mounts, Steinberg, & Dombusch, 1991). According to the results of
the research by Matejevic (Matejevic & Stojkovic, 2012) it was stated that
there is low, but statistically significant correlation between the democratic
parenting style of a mother and a very good success of adolescents in school
(r=0.283, r<0.05) and between the democratic parenting style of a mother and excellent school success of adolescents (r=0.248, r<0.01), which confirms that the authoritative parenting style is directly connected to better school performance. In addition, high-achieving students, more often than underachieving students, described their parents as understanding, approving, trusting, affectionate, encouraging achievement, and not overly strict in disciplining (Masselam, Marcus, & Stunkard, 1990). Conversely, underachievers described their parents as very strict and demanding, lax, or punitive in their disciplinary techniques (Dombusch, Ritter, Mont-Reynaud, & Chen, 1990). Finally, Lambom et al. (1991) found that adolescents from authoritative home environments demonstrated greater levels of academic competence and adjustment than adolescents reared by authoritarian parents. Thus, adolescents reared in authoritarian or permissive home environments appear to be at greater risk for negative academic outcomes. The result of the previous studies showed how parenting style can affect student's academic performance. Since achievement of adolescents has been a major concern of educators for years, it is highly expected that this issue would be addressed. Therefore, after proper understanding and evaluation of the above aspects, the present study was selected to determine the different parenting styles used by Canduman-Housing parents. In addition, the researchers set an objective to have a clear and complete idea between the relationship of the respondent's profile and the different parenting styles they use and to know if there is a significant relationship between the parenting styles of the parents and their children's academic performance. Moreover, the researchers are prompted to conduct the study because they want to raise awareness on the parents on what proper parenting style they should practice to help in increasing their child's academic performance and over all well-being.        

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