Shaffer & Harrison, 1998 said it is important family context variables are found to be an influential factor in causing withdrawal, which indicates an indirect influence of the spouse on the international assignment success. There is increasing literature on the families of internationally mobile individuals, expatriate couples and dual careers (Linehan and Walsh, 2000). Shaffer (2001), with emphasis on work-family conflict, support and commitment and its influence on the struggle for balance on international assignments. The writer’s state is the interaction between work and family domains that directly influence organizationally relevant outcomes. Bauer and Taylor (2001) informed that spouse adjustment includes three dimensions: how well the spouse builds relationships with host country nationals, how well the spouse adjusts to local customs and the culture in general, and the extent to which the spouse has a sense of becoming part of or feeling at home in the foreign country. Tharenou (2003) verified that some of the key barriers to young people exploring international 4 work options were family and partner influence. The stronger the cultural and family links to one’s country, the less likely people are to leave to work somewhere else. Norms and values developed through family and environment, ethnicity, one’s language skills, the national and cross-national relationships of oneself and one’s families, the social background of the family and other influences that shape an individual’s view of the world have an effect on the propensity to engage in international work and careers (Mayrhofer, 2004). Since moving overseas often entails a physical separation from family and friends, it also the things need to be considered for assignments.
Authors have suggested that organizations should consider both partners’ willingness to relocate when taking their international resourcing decisions and to factor in dual-career issues (Sparrow, 2004). While Richardson and Mallon (2005) suggest friends and family are often seen as barriers to global mobility and Richardson (2006) suggest that in some cases family 5 factors and other relationships can be an incentive to expatriation. Insufficient more current studies found that spousal influences to be based on spouse satisfaction (Herleman 2008). Current studies mention the importance of the spouse (and family) with reference to international assignment success (Lazarova, 2010). Though, the influence of the spouse on the emigrant is most extensively studied in adjustment literature (Maaike Deen, 2011). The reasons can often be found in the broad learning experiences and the opportunities for education that the prospective expatriates perceive for their families in the target location prior to working overseas (Dickman, 2012). Therefore, Dickman said general education system consideration together with city-specific opportunities for schooling or tertiary education might be important for the “decision to go”.
Additionally, Maaike Deen, 2011 claimed that the assignment needs to find a balance between the family and work domains. And it supports by Takeuchi in 2002 which it is influential to the strain or pressure of the full-size other (the spouse), and vice versa that stress or strain experienced at paintings or at home with the aid of an expatriate. Spillover effects can be described as the effects of a process in which affect, attitudes, and behavior carries over from one role to another for the same individual? (Lazarova, 2010). In other arguments by Lazarova, spillover concerns? the transference of moods, skills, values, and behaviors from one role to another?, which means that an employee’s experiences at work can affect the experiences at home and vice versa. Takeuchi (2002) said, the reason for the passion of the crossover and spillover effects during an international assignment is explained by the fact that a lack of support outside the direct family makes the frequency and degree of interaction between the expatriates and spouses greater, which results in a bigger influence of spillover and crossover effects. This also supported by Herleman, 2008 considered to be the moderator that decreases the negative impact of stressors, like feelings of insecurity/uncertainty, on strains, which is especially suitable for the spouse because of the isolation from physical and psychological support systems that was caused by the international relocation (Takeuchi, 2002).
In addition, in 2010, a study by Noeleen, a number of respondents indicated that they were positively influenced by stories of other people’s experiences abroad, but 33 percent of boundary crossers reported that their partner/ family was not willing to move abroad made it difficult to maintain the relationship in general. However, 63 percent of both boundary crosser and natives did not consider that going abroad makes it difficult to maintain a balance between work and social life (Michael, 2010). Timothy, 2010 claimed that being romantically involved at home would discourage 43 percent of boundary crosser from going abroad, but it would be a strong pull factor to move abroad to be with the romantic partner. The inability of an assignment’s spouse or a family member to adjust to the foreign location is one of the reasons most commonly given by expatriates for their premature return from traditional international assignments.Although this reason for expatriate failure was identified very early in the expatriate selection literature, study considering spouse and family adjustment did not come until much later.
Therefore, scholars recommend training and language programs geared directly to spouses in order to facilitate their adjustment (Lauring & Selmer, 2010). Cole (2011) demonstrated that female spouses are able to better adapt to foreign cultures and new locations than male spouses, and recommended that male spouses receive networking information to assist them with job searches. Although there is no need to consider spouse adjustment and job placement, or children’s education, the disruption of the work-life balance of families caused by alternative assignments can result in stress and burn-out among expatriates. Furthermore, families frequently need to adjust to the absence of the international manager due to his/her increased work hours and heavy travel schedules (Cappellen & Janssens, 2010). Some expatriates may also seek alternative employment in order to decrease their time spent traveling (Mayerhofer, Mu¨ller, & Schmidt, 2010). Some author said the main reason expatriates turn down international assignments is that their spouse does not want to resign from their current job or they do not want to interrupt their children’s education. Another challenge of expatriate selection, when considering the role of the spouse, is that more females are taking international assignments and relocating with their male spouses (Dana, 2016). Furthermore, the authors found that the foreign language abilities of spouses were the most influential factor in their ability to rebuild their sense of identity (Dana, 2016). As a result, spouse and family situation should be considered when making selection decision where the international assignment will impact the work-life balance of individuals (Dana, 2016).