However, emissions from millions of vehicles on the road add up so in many cities across the country, the personal automobile is the single greatest polluter. The pollution from cars comes from by-products of the fuel combustion process (exhaust) and from evaporation of the fuel itself.
A car causes more pollution before it’s ever driven than in its entire lifetime of driving. The environmental cost of one car is given below.
(i) Extracting Raw Materials: Waste = 26.5 tonnes
Polluted air = 922 m3
(ii) Transporting Raw Materials: Crude oil in the ocean = 12 litres
Polluted air = 425 x 106 m3
(iii) Producing the car: Waste =1.5 tonnes
Polluted air = 74 x 106 m3
(iv) Driving the car: Abrasive waste = 18.4 kg
Polluted air = 1.016 x 109 m3
(v) Disposing of the car:
Polluted air = 1.02 x 108m3 the greatest harm cars are causing is the pollution of air.
Reasons of Automobile Pollution Problems in India:
Some of the reasons of automobile pollution are summarized below:
(i) Absence of effective mass rapid transport system and intra-city railway networks.
(ii) High population of humans and vehicles in the urban cities.
(iii) Improper traffic management systems and road conditions.
(iv) Inadequate inspection and maintenance facilities.
(v) Adulteration of fuel and fuel products.
(vi) Older vehicles (with old inferior technology) still allowed operating on roads.
(vii) Faulty engine.
Technical measures for controlling the problem of Automobile Pollution:
These are summarized below:
(i) Upgradation of technology (for production of vehicles, for combustion of fuels, for zero emissions etc.)
(ii) To provide urban roads, fly over’s and mass transit systems.
(iii) To enhance fuel quality.
(iv) To use unleaded petrol for the petrol fuelled engine.
Methods that helps in reducing automobile pollution:
(i) Change oil at recommended time.
(ii) Use good quality lubricant.
(iii) Inspect spark-plug clearance and replace it if necessary.
(iv) Maintain appropriate tyre pressure.
(v) Tune and dirt free the carburetor.
(vi) Maintain and service the vehicle at regular intervals.
(vii) Drive at recommended speed.