Social media intelligence by Wendy W. Moe and David A. Schweidel
This book is about the practice of how social media monitoring and introduced the concept of social media intelligence and is an essential step in developing a social media intelligence platform. There are several discussions in this book about social media and society such what motivate a person to share an opinion, are they try to improve standard in the eyes of others? Or it is connected to the psychological and sociological factors that influence some people to express themselves on social media. Wendy and David (2014) try to examine in this book on how the dynamics influencing behaviour at the individual level result in predictable conversational trends at the population level and also how opinions of society through social media systematically drift in becoming more negative and radical sometimes. Following that statement, that is lead Wendy and David of discussing about the fragmentation of the populations as individual gravitate to community.
Are Social media fragmenting the population?
Geoffrey Moore (1998) argues in his book “Crossing the chasm” that for a product to succeed in the mass market, it must cross the chasm that separates the innovative consumers from the rest of the market and instead of that each individual among the innovator population can play their own critical role in bridging the gap between the population and the mass market. With the beat, the present of social media everyone will have their own role to unite the society and the mass market to spread a news and information. Nevertheless, Watts and Dodd stated that dissemination of information is not necessarily transmitted by influential only. There is an alternative path for diffusion of information exists if there are some people who are easily influenced. This is one of the factors that will lead to fragmenting the population because people who are easily influenced will easily spread the sensitivity vibes to others. This is because in an online environment social media allow us to easily connecting with others, regardless of where they belong either influential elite or mass market. News and information will be access easily without knowing its authenticity. Wendy and David (2014) declare that the structure of our social networking and the path that word of mouth take over these social ties are more transparent with social media and cause of that we have the ability to observe social networking sites and influence without limitations. To strengthen the statement , when one users shared a news and spread it to their friends it will directly be one of the process of social influence and it will effectively enlist a pool of advocates who helps spreading the news to the bigger population.
In short, social media can unite individuals who share a cause or point of view in their social networking sites. However, it has also fragmented the population some group of people that often create conflict in social media sites and cannot accept others opinion just because they have a different kind of thinking.
Social media a critical introduction by Christian Fuchs
Communication Power, Social Media and Mass Self-Communication
In this chapter of this book, Christian Fuchs is likely referring to Castells approach by starting giving the argument from Castells that says mass-self communication is a novel quality of communication in contemporary society. This is because Castells (2009) stated that it is mass communications because it can be potentially reach a global audience and all the retrieval of specific messages or content from the World Wide Web and electronic network is considered as self-selected. It means people have the power to choose whether to take an action or not by the messages that they receive. Castells (2009) also claims there are three forms of communication that coexist, interact and complement each other rather than substituting for one another (interpersonal, mass communication and mass self-communication). In short, social organisation and cultural change can be defined as the articulation of all forms of communication that conveyed by human interaction.
Social media revolutions- Twitter and Facebook
Based on Hendricks (2013) Twitter and Facebook became popular in the year of 2006, where people around the world get overly attached with these social networking sites that connected people around the world without limitations. As for that Fuchs (2014) analyse that the internet resulted in the emergence of movements that leads to the born of protest conveyed by internet. Meanwhile, Fuchs claims that Castells fails to see that it is not the internet that creates sociality but human actors who are embedded in antagonist economic, political and ideological structure of society. The collective social action that makes use of the internet can have few effects and intensify existing trends. Therefore, the actual implications that have been stated by Fuchs (2014) which depends on contexts, power relations, resources, mobilization capacities, strategies and tactics. In addition, Castells (2009) also noted that social media leads to revolution and rebellion. Where media is contradictory because we live in a society in conflict and as a result, they are actually contradictory effects. Fuchs (2014) argues that the media are not only factors that influence the conditions of protest. Fuchs (2014) argue that the media are not the only factors that affect the conditions of protest, but the protester stand in relation based on conflict with political and ideological / cultural conditions also affect protest. Wherefore, social media is used only as a medium for the protester to voice out their opinions. Jurish (2012) analyse that the protester will blast out vast amount of information and make use “ego- centered network” so that social media tends to generate crowds of individual. Additionally, Castells and Jurish also assume that social media will generate protest by became the primary sources of reference although its authencity could not be confirmed. Gerbaudo (2012) have done an interviewed with activist from several country such- USA, Egypt and Spain about their use of social media in protest and he found out that although contemporary social movement claims that they are leaderless network, there are soft leaders who make use of social media for choreographing protest and constructing a choreography assembly1.
In conclusion, Castells defines social media as a form of mass self-communication and as a social realm where communication power and counter-power are exerted, but Christian Fuchs thinks that Castells lacks of a theory of society an modern society and he also claims that Castells concept of social media lacks an engagement with social theories that conceptualise power, autonomy, society, sociality and capitalism. Fuchs (2014) stated that a critical theory of social media and society is needed to contribute to the creation of some foundations of critical theory of social media.
Understanding social media by Sam Hinton & Larissa Hjorth
Participation and user created content
Hinton and Hjorth (2013) have come out with one word that summarise the particular quality of social media and that is ‘Participation’. According to Hinton and Hjorth (2013) from their online experience, it is involve methods of actively providing information about people’s daily routine and people’s thinking. As we have seen, nowadays society often updating their activity and emotion of some issues at social media sites. Therefore, Hinton and Hjorth (2013) analysed the participation of agencies can take many forms from user-generated content and the emergence of social media and the emphasis on the mode of participation has many profound implications for the study of media and society. Nugroho and Syarief (2012) claims that click-activism2 has the implication that came out with a different result. The implication of participation of click-activism in social media has been studied by a number of scholars from a different perspective. Bruns, Burgess, Crawford, and Shawn (2012) found out that the use of social media played an important role in crisis communication. All of these scholars are focusing upon the role of twitter sites in disseminating and sharing crisis information and updates from states and local authorities as well as everyday citizens. Hinton and Hjorth (2013) stated it is important to recognise that media participation is a culturally specific nation.
User as producers-produsers
Hinton and Hjorth (2013) claims that the audience are no longer simply consumers of media besides they have become participants. This is because society have a power to provide their own opinions about some issues nowadays using social media and the internet is participative because it is two-way of communication that allowed them to sharing information towards each other around the world. Rheingold (2008) says this phenomenon has led some people to describe certain kinds of uses of the internet as participative and participatory media. Halls (1973) claims that audiences are active to construct their own meaning from media texts that may not be entirely in line with the intended meaning of the producers.
According to Hinton and Hjorth (2013) online activism is related and also enables various participative media and allows produsers to express opinion and ideas in the online environment. Elmer (1993) stated that the internet’s physical architecture constitutes a kind of agora3 in which all ideas can be freely presented and all people are free to engage with them. Hinton and Hjorth (2013) believe that social media provides a service where people are allow to mix around in cyber and discussing about current issues. Meanwhile, Rheingold (2002) has come out with one terms “smart mobs” that refer to a large group of people who use mobile technologies as a way of connecting with each other. As from that, it can allow activist to organise protest with many people in a short notice. Hinton and Hjorth (2013) also analysed that the participation of social media played a significant role in helping protesters to organise and share information in states where others forms of media are strictly regulated.
Briefly, Hinton and Hjorth is looked up at the ideas about participation as a central concept that underlie social media and the internet has always been two-way communication that supports the production of digital content by anyone with the internet access. Besides, Hinton and Hjorth (2013) also stated that the participation reinforces the importance of offline realities in online behaviour.
New Media & Public Activism- Neoliberalism, the state and radical protest in the public sphere by John Michael Roberts
Roberts (2014) stated that digital technology has been seen by some as a means to get more people involved in democratic processes. The involvement of the democratic activities taken either involvement in street protests or objections in social media. According to Hands (2011) the network formation of the internet encourages communication between people and Goode (2005) also stated that digital media involves an information that will makes us think in a different ways about our everyday beliefs. The emergence of social media will encourage people to active in voicing their dissent in a various ways- such doing a video and posted it online or vice versa. Besides, Roberts (2014) claims that social media brought us into many innovative opportunities to support democratic participation in society. Savat (2013) analysed through social media the authorities can calculate and predict the patterns of society behaviours in voicing out their opinion.
Social media and the neoliberal subject
According to Roberts (2014) social media sites is a global medium that enables media convergence to proceed apace through the likes of digital networks and the production of self-generated and self-communicated messages. In contrast, Diamond (2010) claims that he sees social media as a means to expand political, social and economic freedom which we can see that society nowadays use social media as a ways of interaction with the authorities. Apart from that, Fento and Barassi (2011) stated that Castells had describe social media less about its relationship to the deeper processes of neoliberalism but as for Roberts (2014) he claims that there are another critical sense in which social media also depoliticises public activism by promoting enjoyable neoliberal ideals to users. This is because social media sites urge people sharing their personal information to public around the world and at the same times it encourages users to market and manage their selves through popular culture. To support the upper statement, we can see nowadays people seem likely to show the weird sides of them just to getting viral and popular. Roberts (2014) claims that to gain a critical perspective on social media it is vital to understand that this occurs through emotional elements of pop culture. In addition, Roberts (2014) stated that social media thereby delineates a new type of fetishism and ideology which represents a radical transformation of society with reproduces existing social divisions and social hierarchies. As for that, Roberts (20140 claims that it might contribute towards strengthening neoliberalism and competence in society in ways that complement the competent and more positively social media also clearly offers new democratic opportunities for activist and social movements to get their voice heard in the public sphere.
In short, those critical theorists tend to view social media as a qualitatively new form of power and in the process, provide a complementary analysis of new media to that given by those who advocate a liberation technology perspective. As many commentators have begun realise, new media represent excellent outlet for modes of activism, dissent and resistance and it opening up public space to personalise their dissatisfaction for some issues.
Social media, Politics and the State – Protest, Revolution, Riots, Crime and policing in the Age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube edited by Daniel Trottier and Christian Fuchs.
Social networking sites in pro democracy and anti-austerity protest
this topic debate and argue about social movements literature has to offer some analytical tools to foster the understanding of social networking sites with regard to pro-democracy and anti-austerity protest. There are complex patterns of entrenchment between social movements and social media platforms. Castells (2012) and Morozou (2012) stated that a debate developed quickly that saw critical voices confronting more optimistic views on the power of social networking sites in triggering protest and revolts. Besides according to Trottier and Fuchs (2015) mainstream media across the world gave wide visibility to the protest but many commentators also underlined the important role of social networking platform in nurturing and supporting protest. The spreading of information and communication technologies seemed to be central in the development, for instance a picture, slogan and manifestos that has been posted by activist across the globe through social media platforms. With that, Trottier and Fuchs (2015) claims that social media platform mostly devoted to the sharing of picture became the place in which the protesters could voice their anger and it seems to constitute a relevant actor in the making of communication flows surrounding protest.
Social networking sites facing the temporal and relational dimensions of social movements
According to Trottier and Fuchs (2015) social movements can be conceived as processes that interface with society at many different levels. Besides, Koopmass (2004) stated, to address the temporality of social movements allows us to appreciate the dynamism of explanatory variables in the development of mobilisations because their role is more often subjected to the variation that confined to static interaction with protest. Therefore we can see that social networking sites are clearly affected the spread of protest. Koopmass (2004) claims that by including social movement in their broader organisational field, it would allow us to understand that social networking sites are not just tools in the hand of activist. In addition, Earl and Kimport (2011) also claimed that information and communication technologies not just social networking sites, it is considerably as the repertoire of contention. However, Trottier and Fuchs analysed that social media platform were inserted in a media environment that revealed its multi-layered composition and just one of the means of communication that activist employ. Howard (2010) pointed out that the internet has a casual and supportive role in the formation of democratic discourse. Therefore, many scholars’ claims that in the stages of latency before mobilisations social networking sites prepared the ground for many of the current protest. Howard and Hussain (2013) also support that digital media has a role during the preparation stage of protest.
Briefly, from all above statement Trottier and Fuchs has analysed that social media paired with other internet tools and web platforms that allowed the expressions and sharing of emotion that triggered a sense of collective belonging. Besides, social media also has become the source of information for supporters of the protest who not directly involved in street protest and Rucht (2004) also says that mainstream media such social media still can continue function and exist without joining the protest in the streets. In other word, Khamis and Vaughn (2011) claims that social media platform were relevant in promoting a new form of citizen journalism, which provides a platform for ordinary citizens to express themselves. This is because the information cascade generated through the social media was impossible to stop by the authorities, since it spread simultaneously through a diverse range of media channels and platforms.
1 The choreography assembly means the use of social media in directing people towards specific protest events in providing participant with suggestion and instruction about how to act and in the construction of emotional narration to sustain their coming together in public space.
2 Click- activism referring to the society that engaging in civic activities such involvement in politics, volunter activities and vice versa.
3 Agora was marketplaces were communities would come together to trade in goods and produce, but also to engage in politics and matters of public life.