of Islamic era
A kind of government in the
Islamic world at lasted for almost 13 century from the death of hazrat Muhammad
the over through of the last ottoman caliph Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni
in 1924. Through the one and half decease of century the word of caliph turned
but has been used at the time curse in June 2014 by an aggressive group
considering themselves isls and also announcing the establishment of caliphate
and they also proclaimed their leader Abu baker al Baghdadi. On the meanwhile
this call rejected by most Muslims around the world.
In 622 hazrat Muhammad (?) left
his homeland city mecca move toward to the medina with his
some best followers by order of Allah. When they reached medina people of
medina call them (muhajroon) immigrants.
The prophet (?) and
the immigrants given the shelter by the citizen of medina after this they
(people of media) also known as supporter (al ansar). Hazrat Muhammad (?) laid
the foundation of Islamic government in medina. After ten year in 632 he (?) died
after a brief illness in medina. The prophet (?) left
behind the young and vibrate Islamic government which uniting most of the tribe
of the Arabian peninsula with medina its capital. It was censorious condition
because prophet had both spiritual and political authority and it was really
difficult for anyone to unite those two qualities.
But it was vital that Islam should continue to
grow and that’s way a leader was needed. The People of medina and other
followers thought the close companion of the prophet (?) is
successor would come from one of them.
The supporters and their
tribe leaders felt that they were the people of city and greater in number and that
it was their right to take leadership after prophet (?).
The supporter gathered to decide which of them
would be the prophet successor because the holy prophet was last prophet and
there was to be no prophet after him. He was also leader of Muslims therefore
necessary that after him there should be someone who lead the Muslim government
and also solving the Muslims affairs chosen from us because we gave them salter
and property share when they were alone.
Someone told hazrat Abu baker (R.A) about the
meeting then Abu baker (R.A) and Umar (R.A) reached at meeting place and
interrupted the deliberation.
Hazrat Abu baker (R.A) brought the delegation
at home and asked it is the no matter of medina city it is the matter of whole
Arab and whole world we first accept the Islam and we also left ours houses,
parents, and tribe for the separation of Islam and Allah and he also asked
supporters about government and other Arab tribe who will not accept the
government of (Ansar) supporter and he also added that the scarification of
supporter for the Islam will not forget and their value is high.
then a supporter leader stand
and said Abu baker (R.A) is right but he also added that the maximum adjustment
that they could make in favor of the emigrants was that they could have two
Amirs, one from the supporter (Ansars) and the other from the emigrants, hazrat
Umar (R.A) said that Islam give the teaching of unity for one Allah, one
Prophet, and one Quran.
It followed as a required result that the
Muslim community should have one Amir. If the plan of having two Amirs was once
accepted, other people would later lay claim to the election of an Amir from
them. Such multiple Amirat would lead to the losing the strength of the Islamic
polity after the long and hot debate one of leader of supporter arose and said
to the supporter you were the first helper of Islam and this time you are the
first hurdle in Islamic solidity at this supporter fell in deep thought and they
seemed to hesitate to press their demand.
Abu baker (R.A) take stage and asked to the
delegation will you accept the hazrat Umar (R.A) as a new leader for the
government then suddenly hazrat Umar (R.A) I don’t put myself ahead of Abu
baker (R.A) and he said you are senior and also lead the prayers during the
illness of prophet (?) and you have deserve this
succession. Then Abu baker (R.A) said so give me your hand and hazrat Umar
(R.A) gave his hand for oath and other people also give the oath to hazrat Abu
baker (R.A) in this way that problem came to end.
The new time began a new title written in
history the first caliph of Islam and successor of Muhammad (?) was
to be hazrat Abu baker (R.A). In the next the position of Abu baker (R.A) was
confirmed as caliph. He was very simple and very Islamic man. day after he
becoming the leader he took his fabrics and move towards to the market some
sahabha asked him where are you going he replied I am going to the market for
trade they became very wonderful and asked why you are leader of whole Muslim world
which there is no need for work for a leader he replied how will I fed my
He was modest and very spiritual man. During
his period many up and downs came which create the many problem for the new
Islamic government like Musaylimah and 2nd issue is zakat when many
Muslims severed from the zakat.
On that time he fought against them during
these wars many lives lost by Muslims and Muslims also lost 300 plus hufiz e Qur’an after the this he
ordered the Muslims to collect the Qur’an and he also himself a hafiz then he arrange the Qur’an
in a book form in his period Qur’an should write and arrange in the form of
During his time period he
sent the Muslims army to the two world super power one is roman empire and
other is Persian empire and mean while he strictly warn the Muslims army don’t
destroy the property don’t kill the worshiper those worship in the temples and
don’t hurt the women , children and the old men.
In 634 hazart Khalid bin waleed leading the
Muslims army against the Roman Empire on the other side Muslims army also enter
in Persia. After two year of caliphate harazt Abu baker was died at the age of
61 in medina.
death of Abu baker (R.A). hazrat Umar (R.A) hold the caliphate and became 2nd
caliph in Islamic history.
The era of hazrat Umar (R.A) is expansion of
caliphate and also known as era of victory. After few days he becoming a caliph
Muslim army under the command of hazrat Khalid bin waleed conquered the damasks.
Umar (R.A) also believed that it is victory for Islam not for Umar and Khalid.
Almost all of the Muslims were ready to give
the oath to the hazrat Umar (R.A) during the time of selection of 2nd caliph .hazrat
Umar was feel afraid about the love of the people. The first challenge for
hazrat Umar (R.A) was to win over his subjects and members of Majlis al Shura. Umar
has great experience how to win the people hearts for the betterment of Islam.
stress was on the well-being of poor and those people who did not enjoyed the
life as other Arab rich can. Umar also tried to solve the conflicts reputation
and relationship with Banu Hashim,
the tribe of Ali, delivered to him his disputed estates in Khyber.
He followed the order of 1st caliph over the conflicted land of Fidak, and
continued its status as a state property.
In the Ridda wars, thousands of prisoners from
rebel and apostate tribes were taken away as slaves during the era of victory.
Umar ordered the general pardoned for the prisoners, and their immediate
Umar quite popular among the Bedouin
tribes. With the help of
people, Umar took a great decision of declaring the Khalid ibn Waleed supreme
commander of Muslim army against the Roman front.
Political and civil administration
government of Umar hold the Muslim Uma together. hazrat Umar (R.A) divided his realm into states and some independent states
like in some areas Azerbaijan and Armenia, these state claim them equal to the caliphate.
states were administered by the governors or Wali of
the state, the selection of governor which was done personally by
Umar. hazrat Umar (R.A) was very intelligent in
states were also divided
into districts, there were about
100 districts in the realm. Each
district or main city was
under the control of a
junior governor or Amir, most
of the time selected by hazrat Umar (R.A) but some time they were also decided by
the governor of the state. Harazt Umar (R.A) also
introduced the administration system, regular army, garrison, cities political
and judiciary system.
also made a successful network of intelligence, partly a reason for his strong
grip on his bureaucracy. Hazrat Umar (R.A) was a great and brilliant political
leader and, as planer of the government solidity. Hazrat Umar (R.A) played very
great role as a chief adviser of prophet.
Abu Bakr’s era, he also played great role as his secretary and primary adviser.
He is greatest known leader for the expansion of great and strong
administrative structure of the government which keep together large Islamic
Jerusalem in 637 CE
two year of 2nd caliph Muslims armies conquered the western Jorden and they
also invade the holy city Jerusalem but there is a problem the people of
Jerusalem asked to the Muslim commander they only surrender themselves and city
only in the front of supreme leader (caliph hazrat Umar) then he came to
Jerusalem for their surrender.
Christian community also invite the caliph in
church to pay his prayer but Umar said to rejecting this invitation if I prayer
here then the Muslims after me will want to pray here. Hazrat Umar also asked
them I will not take this church from Christian and he also gave them a copy of
insurance which is hanging on the wall of masjid named as Umar.
(This is guarantee of peace and protection
given by the servant of Allah, Umar. He gave them assurance of protection for
their levies, property, and church and the cross as well as the sick and
healthy and the all its religious community)
Umar also order the Jews to leave the holy
city of Jerusalem after the Jews requested caliph give them permission of living
in Jerusalem. Umar only allow the seventy Jews family to live in western
also ordered to build a canal connecting Neil to the red sea to reduce the risk
of famine which effect the medina and its crops and the transformation of grain
from areas those are rich in food or other things to areas suffering the
poverty and famine and he also build a nine mile long canal for people of Basra
to providing them clean and pure drinking water from the Tigris river and governor
of Basra also build other canal for agriculture.
lived in mud hut he is very simple man. hazrat Umar also introduce the
department of bait ul mall for poor , orphan , widows and old poor men . He
allowed the tax free trade but tax on wealth and he also develop the courts for
Jews and Christian community in which they solve theirs matter according to their
own law and he also introduce the Islamic cleaner.
In 644 he
was leading the fajer prayer one of his slave stabbing the knife in his belly
six time suddenly other people want to arrest the killer but he also stab the
nine or ten people in the end he commit suicide. Before his death he also wrote
a letter in which he mentioned about next caliph (hazrat Usman (R.A).
death a committee formed who chose the 3rd caliph among those six people which
were mentioned by 2nd caliph in which hazrat Ali (R.A) and hazrat Usman (R.A)
were also mentioned. In the end committee chose hazrat Usman.
hazrat Usman became 3rd caliph of Islamic territory he was richest trader
before the accepting the Islam he also married prophet two daughters.
intelligent and sharp merchant from the youth he has great experience about
economy then he also increase allocation about 25% for the poor and needy
people he also remove the ban on agricultural land which owe by conquered areas
and increase the loan scheme for the people.
Hazrat Usman (R.A) did not get pay from
treasury and did not use it for his personal purposes even has such right
during his role Muslims and non-Muslims also enjoyed the economic success. He
also introduced the Islamic stamp on coin.
Usman (R.A) also brought the changes in army rank he also gave the high rank
his dearest and trustworthy men he sent the army to subcontinent and Africa.
improve the naval forces which defeated the Romanian naval forces open the way
of trade. He marched the Muslims army towards the Spain in few month they
invade Spain on the other hand Muslims army also invade the northern coastal area
of Africa on the mean while Muslims invade the Andalusia in the east they
reached in khorasan and invade it.
armies also reached now Turkmenistan and they also invade the Baluchistan Sindh
and remaining areas of Persia.
caliphate face many crisis one is more dangerous was against the caliph on this
situation caliph held the meeting of his governors to solve the issue and
people who are behind this will be ended with their bad goals.
Rebel speared fast in the all states then
caliph sent his private spy to investigate the rebellions and understand their problems
on their return to medina they told the caliph about people views in some states
people are satisfied with caliph but in Egypt they are against the caliph and
they also want kill him.
On the mean while the governor of some states
sent army to medina for the protection of caliph but caliph reject their help.
A time came when the 1000 people sent to medina to kill the caliph, on the
daily basis riots increases in medina.
reason for arose of the anti-Usman movement is disputed between the Shia and
Sunni Muslims. Other reason is that caliph only pay heeded on his
relatives he also gave them high posts and the rebellions also want the Ali as
In 656 in
medina caliph house guarded by his supporters in which Hassan and hussan ibn Ali
were included during the riot the rebellion enter in the caliph house climbed
through the back wall of house and they stab the caliph under his neck while he
was reading the holy Qur’an.
suddenly caliph wife enter in the room when
she saw the people around the caliph then she started yelling and beaten her
face with hands Then rebels left the house and the supporters of hazrat Usman
(R.A) at the gate heard them and entered, but it was too late.
assassination of 3rd caliph hazrat Usman (R.A) one thing has clear the new
caliph will be chosen by rebellions and they also gave one day for the appointment of new caliph. They
gave them three names in which name of son-in-law of prophet (?) was included. Many rebellions went to
the prophet son-in-law ali (R.A) asked him to accept their offer but ali reject
their offer and they also went to the other to member to accept their offer
they also did same as ali did.
When close companions of prophet Muhammad (?) went to ali and asked him to accept
their proposal otherwise it go in wrong hands and there is danger of misused of
caliphate but ali unwillingly accepted it and became the 4th caliph
of Islamic government all people gave the oath to ali (R.A) and other two
member also gave him oath in privately in this harsh condition ali became 4th
caliph and he also replaced the governors of the states which were appointed by
hazrat Usman (R.A) he appointed his trustworthy people, on this condition or
act of caliph one governor of state Levant and
also stand against the caliph they reject the ali (R.A) decision.
When he became the caliph on the next day he warned
the people of medina about if anyone found in guilty he did not tolerated and
he also added he only chose the caliphate to prevent the Islam from evil.
Fitna, 656–661, followed the assassination of usman continued during the
caliphate of Ali, and was ended by Muawiyah’s assumption of the caliphate. Hazrat
Aisha prophet beloved wife, some of prophet close associates and the
cousin of 3rd caliph (Muawiyah) and (Marwan) came to ‘Ali and asked to him
to punish those rebellions who had killed Usman. They settled near to
lasted for many days and the subsequent heated exchange and protests during the
parley turned from words to blows, leading to loss of life on both sides. In
the uncertainty the Battle of the Camel started in 656, where victory
fallen into Ali,s side.
Under such circumstances, a split took place
which led to the first civil war between Muslims in Islamic history. Some
Muslims, fight in the right of Usman 3rd caliph and they also considered Usman
a rightful and just caliph till the end, who had been unlawfully
On the other hand Some Muslims, who are known as
party of Ali, believed Usman was wrong and fallen in guilty , he had forfeited
the caliphate and been lawfully executed for his non-acceptance to mend his
ways or step down; thus Ali was the just and true Imam and his opponents are wrong
in their decision. This was not the position of Ali himself.
This civil war created permanent divisions
within the Muslim community regarding who had the legitimate right to occupy
selected ‘Abd Allah ibn al’-Abbas governor of Basra and shifted his
capital to Kufa, the Muslim city in Iraq. Following the Roman and Persian
battles that lasted for hundreds of years, there were effective differences
between Iraq, officially governed by the Persian Sassanid dynasty and
the state of Syria officially ruled by the (Byzantine) Roman Empire.
Iraqis citizen wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be
in Kufa so as to bring revenues into their area and reject the proposal of Syria. They
persuade hazrat Ali (R.A) to come to Kufa and establish the capital in Kufa, in
Muawiyah the governor of Levant and the cousin of Usman refused Ali’s
demands for obedience. Ali opened consulting hoping to recoup Muawiyahs allegiance,
but Muawiyah resisted on Levant independence under his rule.
In this duration Egypt and Levant also separated
from main caliphate made their governments.
4th caliph reign he introduced many departments and run campaign against those
people who found in guilty he also mentioned that there will no tolerance for who
involved in finical corruption and he manage the rank in government according
to caliph every one enjoy the same rights even if someone is governor.
He also warned his governor about poor
and rich people he mention that all are equal and treated them same as you
He also said Remember that displeasure and
disapproval of common men, have-nots and depressed persons more than
overbalances the approval of important persons and displeasure of a few big
will be excused by the Lord if the general public and masses of your subjects
are happy with you.
The common men, the poor, apparently less
important sections of your subjects are the pillars of Islam….be more friendly
with them and secure their confidence and sympathy.
Ali (R.A) also imposed the central law of government
in this law central government play important role or insurgency in any of the Islamic
Ali (R.A) also took back the land from the people because these properties
belong to government which are granted to people during the hazrat Usman era by
the order of him and he also divided the treasury among the people and ruled by
resources of caliphate
There were six economical resource
of Islamic reign
In the Islamic
state it was debt on every Muslim who is rich and also has land or other property
like gold, cattle etc. its mean he has luxury life then he is also able to pay
the zakat about 2.5% of his wealth to the poor if these thing or wealth are not
used in year.
Islamic caliphate also introduced the niasb
its mean if minimum increase in property then it called nisab this wealth did
not add into existing wealth. Jewelry,
one of the Five Pillars of Islam and it is obligation on all Muslims
who qualify as wealthy enough.
When Islamic state introduced the zakat
mean while it introduced the system of jizya which is only for the non-Muslims
its mean a tax taken from rich non-Muslims in every year. This tax did not apply
on the poor, widows, children, monks, sick, and the slaves. From this tax government
also help the poor and sick.
the income from State land, whether an agricultural land or a meadow, or a land
with any natural minerals reserves.
Ghanimah or Khums was
the booty captured on the occasion of war with the enemy. Four-fifths of the
booty was distributed among the soldiers taking part in the war while one-fifth
was credited to the state fund.
a tax on agricultural land.
Initially, after the first
Muslim conquests in the 7th century, kharaj usually denoted a
lump-sum duty levied upon the conquered provinces and collected by the
officials of the former Byzantine and Sasanian empires, or, more broadly, any
kind of tax levied by Muslim conquerors on their non-Muslim subjects, dhimmis. At that time, kharaj was
synonymous with jizyah, which later emerged as a poll tax paid by dhimmis. Muslim
landowners, on the other hand, paid only ushr, a religious tithe, which carried a
much lower rate of taxation.
a reciprocal 10% levy on agricultural land as well as merchandise imported from
states that taxed the Muslims on their products. Umar was the first Muslim
ruler to levy ushr.
When the Muslim traders
went to foreign lands for the purposes of trade they had to pay a 10% tax to
the foreign states. Ushr was levied on reciprocal basis on the goods
of the traders of other countries who chose to trade in the Muslim dominions.
Umar issued instructions
that ushr should be levied in such a way so as to avoid hardship,
that it will not affect the trade activities in the Islamic empire. The tax was
levied on merchandise meant for sale. Goods imported for consumption or
personal use but not for sale were not taxed. The merchandise valued at 200
dirhams or less was not taxed. When the citizens of the State imported goods
for the purposes of trade, they had to pay the customs duty or import tax at
lower rates. In the case of the dhimmis the rate was 5% and in the
case of the Muslims’ 2.5%. In the case of the Muslims the rate was the same as
that of zak?t. The levy was thus regarded as a part of zak?t and
was not considered a separate tax.