Teen Pregnancy (Cause and Effect) Teen pregnancy is a problem within teens aged 13 to 19 because of the traumatizing experience that can lead to drop outs, delivery complications, and serious health risks for the teen and for the baby.  According to Unicef the meaning of teen pregnancy is when a teenage girl, usually within the ages 13-19,becomes pregnant.  Pregnant teens have a higher risk of getting high blood pressure, preeclampsia, and can lead to premature birth.  This is a story from a teenage girl named Isabel who got pregnant at 14 and gave birth at 15.  One night she decided to have unprotected sex with her boyfriend and quickly found out she was pregnant 3-4 weeks later.  She talked to her trusted aunt and she told her it was going to be okay.  One great example of teen pregnancy nowadays are teen parties where teens could do drugs, get drunk, and have unprotected sex without knowing.  229,715 babies were born in 2015 to womens aged 15-17 years resulting in a birth rate of 22.3 per 1,000 women according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  According to the Advocates For Youth website it states, “750,000 teens become pregnant each year – the vast majority (80 percent) of these pregnancies unintended.”  Teen pregnancy is a serious issue that can lead to disastrous situations. The severity of teen pregnancy is so important because it can ruin the life of your teenager and can cause serious damages.  One of the major causes to teen pregnancy is sexual assault and rape.  According to Crisis Center it states, “Between 11% and 20% of girls were pregnant as a direct result of rape.”  This is a story from an innocent girl who got raped and became pregnant.  She was 13 and was walking with her best friend down the bike path when a creepy guy with a cigar and a can told them if they wanted to see what he found in the woods.  They were curious and walked up to him and by her surprise she was tackled and started to take her clothes off while her friend was screaming.  She got raped, her friend got beat up, and a few months later she found out she was pregnant.  In addition, another cause to teen pregnancy is peer pressure to drink alcohol and do drugs which could lead to unprotected sex.  According to the Momjunction websites it states, “Nearly 75% of teen pregnancies occur due to teenage drinking habits.”  Many experts report that drinking lowers inhibitions enough to have contributed to one-third of the pregnancies in fourteen to twenty one years old.  The impact that these cause have created among teens show that the future of your teenagers could change in a matter of time. The effects of teen pregnancy are so devastating to our teens because some of the effects could be long-term and some can be fatal.  One effect to this major problem are high school dropouts.  51 percent of teen moms earn a high school diploma compared to 89 percent of female students who did not give birth as a teen.  According to ACLU it states, “approximately 70% of teenage girls who gave birth leave school.”  Furthermore, another effect to teen pregnancy are delivery complications.  According to the Mayo Clinic it states, “Teens during pregnancy appear to be at increased risk of high blood pressure, anemia, premature birth, having low weight babies, and experiencing postpartum depression.”  Teens younger than age 15 are especially vulnerable to anemia, or low blood iron, and pregnancy-related high blood pressure.  By looking at all the causes and effects, it becomes clear that teen pregnancy is a severe problem that can lead to serious conditions and can end your teenager’s education.Birth Control Pills (Bubble Map)Birth control pills provide protection to all females from becoming pregnant by preventing ovulation.  Gregory Goodwin Pincus invented the birth control pill in 1960 from Mexico City.  Unlike other methods, the birth control pill is the only method that you have to take every day or it won’t work.  Can you imagine a world where all 13 year old girls got pregnant?  Birth control pills start to protect you from pregnancy after the first week, if taken daily and correctly.  According to Planned Parenthood it states, “You’re protected from pregnancy as long as you take a one pill every day.”  In other words, if you don’t take a birth control pill every day, you have a higher chance of becoming pregnant and might have to use a second alternative form of birth control to stay protected.  Truly, the birth control pill is the most used birth control method that can help solve teen pregnancy. 53 percent of all teenage girls who use contraceptives, use the birth control pill.  The birth control pill has two different choices, the combination pill and the progestin-only pill.  The combination pill contains two hormones, progestin and estrogen (Estrogen is the primary female sex hormone as well as a medication and progestin is also a hormone and medication), that works by preventing ovulation.  According to the Healthy Women website it states, “The combination pill prevents ovulation by maintaining more consistent hormone levels.  Without a peak in estrogen, the ovary doesn’t get the signal to release an egg.”  Basically, when a female keeps their hormone levels consistent, the ovary doesn’t get the signal to ovulate which prevents ovulation.  The progestin-only pill contains one hormone (progestin) and works by preventing sperm from reaching the eggs.  According to the Mayo Clinic it states, “The mini pill thickens the cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus (endometrium) – preventing sperm from reaching the egg.”  Essentially what it’s trying to say is that the progestin in the mini pill thickens the mucus so that the sperm can’t pass through and reach the eggs which prevents pregnancy.  Clearly, birth control pills are the most used form of birth control because of it’s two different types of options. Birth control pills are known for preventing unwanted pregnancies and it is important because some females might not be able to care for the baby due to financial problems.  Through their work they have impacted all females by giving them the chance to continue with their education and careers.  Birth control pills have given females the decision to control and plan their pregnancies since the 1960s.  Ashley B. from Spanish Fort, AL says, “Birth control pills have empowered me to be responsible for my own reproductive health, take care of my future, and become a contributing member of society.”  Michelle F. from Crown Point, IN says, “Without birth control pills, I would have probably become pregnant at an early age, with an unwanted child, and no career.  Because of Planned Parenthood and birth control pills, I was able to become a nurse and have a great family when I was ready.”  Can birth control pills really solve the problem of teen pregnancy?  Are birth control pills effective enough to stop teen pregnancy?  Although birth control pills can help solve teen pregnancy, they are only 91% effective and have a typical failure rate of 9%.IUD (Bubble Map)Intrauterine devices (IUDs) provide protection to all females from becoming pregnant by killing sperm and preventing ovulation.  Jack Lippes invented the first IUDs in the 19th century from the U.S.A.  Unlike other methods the IUD is the longest lasting form of birth control.  Can you imagine a world where all teens were sexually active and didn’t have long lasting contraceptives to prevent from getting pregnant during that time?  The most effective contraceptive for teens are IUDs and implants, according to a CDC study.  According to Planned Parenthood it states that the ParaGard IUD protects you from pregnancy for up to 12 years, Mirena works for up to 6 years, Kyleena works for up to 5 years, Liletta works for up to 4 years, and Skyla works for up to 3 years.  In other words, IUDs can last from 3 to 12 years depending on the brand.  Without a doubt, IUDs are the most effective long lasting form of birth control that can help solve teen pregnancy.IUDs are extremely effective (every year, less than 1 out of 100 women get pregnant while using an IUD) according to Planned Parenthood.  The IUD has two different choices, the hormonal IUD and the copper IUD.  The hormonal IUD contains only 1 hormone (progestin) and works by preventing the sperm from reaching the uterus and meeting with an egg.  According to the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (ARHP) it states, ” The hormone in the IUD keeps ovaries from releasing eggs.  An IUD thickens mucus in the cervix.  That keeps sperm from reaching the uterus and traveling to an ovary to meet and egg.  An IUD also affects the ability of the sperm to move toward the eggs.”  In other words, the progestin cause the mucus in the cervix to thicken so that the ovaries can’t release any eggs and the sperm can’t reach them.  The copper IUD contains copper and works by killing sperm and preventing fertilization.  According to the Mayo Clinic it states, “ParaGard produces an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm, which helps prevent ovulation.”  To rephrase it, the copper causes an inflammatory reaction that acts like a spermicide and kills the sperm.  Basically, there are two different types of IUDs that work in different ways but for the same reason, which is to prevent pregnancy. IUDs are known for preventing unwanted pregnancies and it is important because in some religions its a sin to become pregnant before marriage, like in Christianity.  Through their work they have impacted all females by teaching them how to be responsible for their actions.  IUDs have given females the power to choose whether they would like to become pregnant or not and when.  Kate L. from New Orleans, LA says, “IUDs have made it possible to work as much as I do and live the quality of life that I chose for myself.  I am thankful for it and Planned Parenthood.”   Ariel H. from Ridgewood, NJ says, “I’m 23 and recently married to the love of my life.  We both have piles of student loans and other bills to pay and every penny counts.  I’m so relieved to not have to worry about the possibility of getting pregnant with a child I can’t support.”  Can IUDs solve the problem of teen pregnancy?  Are IUDs effective enough to stop teen pregnancy?  Yes, IUDs are one of the few forms of birth control that can help solve teen pregnancy because it has an effectiveness of 99% and a failure rate of 1%.Birth Control Pill versus IUD (Compare and Contrast)Birth control pills and intrauterine devices (IUDs) have many similarities and differences that help prevent teen pregnancy.  One commonality between birth control pills and IUDs is that they both contain hormones such as progestin.  According to the Medical News Today website it states, “An IUD is a small plastic device typically made of plastic, which releases either copper or a form of progestin into the uterus…  Birth control pills typically contain both the hormones estrogen and progestin…”  While IUDs prevent pregnancy for 3 to 12 years, birth control pills only prevent pregnancy for 24 hours so you have to take one every day, at the same time.  According to Planned Parenthood it states, “The IUD lasts up to 12 years…  You must take a pill once a day…”  In addition, IUDs are plastic or metal objects in a variety of shapes that are implanted inside the uterus.  Indeed, these birth control methods have been one of the most commonly used since 1982. Since 1990, pregnancy rates in teenage girls aged 15 to 17 declined by almost 50 percent.  As a matter of fact, intrauterine devices have helped reduce teen pregnancy because the progestin thickens the cervical mucus so that the sperm can’t reach the egg.  Another commonality between birth control pills and intrauterine devices is that they cause bloating, headaches, change in mood, and change in weight.  According to the Health Line website it states, “The potential side effects of an IUD and birth control pill include: bloating, nausea, and headaches.”  Birth control pills have an effectiveness of 91% with typical use and are only available with a prescription whereas intrauterine devices have an effectiveness of over 99% and are only available at some clinics.  According to Planned Parenthood it says, “The pill is 91% effective… The IUD is 99% effective…”  Most importantly, these methods are both a form of birth control for females that can help decrease pregnancy rates in teenage girls. About 750,000 teens become pregnant every year resulting in about 400,00 teen births.  The birth control pill and the intrauterine device both don’t protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).  According to Planned Parenthood it states, “This IUD doesn’t protect you from STDs…  The pill doesn’t protect you from STDs…”  By comparison, birth control pills can cost from $0 to $50 while intrauterine devices can cost anywhere between $0 to $1,300.  According to Planned Parenthood it states, “For most brands, 1 pill pack lasts for 1 month, and can cost from $0-$50…  Getting an IUD can cost anywhere between $0 to $1,300…”  Furthermore, there are 3 different types of birth control pills, the combination pill, the progestin-only pill, and the extended cycle pill.  Overall, these birth control methods are a great way to prevent teen pregnancy or pregnancy in general.Argument Towards Successful SolutionThe intrauterine device (IUD) is the most effective way to solve teen pregnancy because it can last from 3 to 12 years depending on the brand.  When a teen uses an IUD, they don’t have to worry about getting pregnant in that period for a couple of years.  Parents and adults who have teenagers should care about teen pregnancy if they want them to thrive in the future.  Young teens are dropping out of school and not getting the education they need because they can’t learn, work, and take care of a child all at the same time.  IUDs can be removed at any time during your menstrual period and it’s easier to remove than insert.  According to the Very Well website it states, “the IUD removal procedure is often easier, way less painful and quicker than your IUD insertion.”  It’s easier to remove an IUD during your menstrual period because your cervix is naturally softened during this time, according to the Very Well website.  IUDs are the most effective form of birth control to prevent pregnancy.  According to Planned Parenthood it states, “every year, less than 1 out of 100 women get pregnant while using an IUD.”  The IUD has an effectiveness of 99% and a failure rate of 1%.  As has been noted, IUDs can protect from pregnancy for up to 12 years, they’re 99% effective, and can be removed at any time during your menstrual period. While it is true that IUDs can help solve teen pregnancy, some people believe that birth control pills are better suited for teens to prevent pregnancy.  Birth control pills are cheaper than IUDs, allowing teens to be able to afford them and prevent unwanted pregnancies.  The most important thing to remember is that teen pregnancy is something that parents need to address for the physical and mental health of their teenagers.  Although birth control pills are cheap and affordable, the benefits of IUDs are more effective than birth control pills due to the simple fact that it is an efficient form of birth control for teens who don’t want to worry about getting pregnant.  Birth control pills have also been prescribed to teens for many other reasons.  According to the Young Women’s Health website it states, “Adolescent girls and young women are frequently prescribed birth control pills for irregular or heavy menstrual periods, menstrual cramps, acne, PMS, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), endometriosis, and hormone replacement therapy.”  For example, girls diagnosed with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (POS) are prescribed birth control pills to lower their hormone levels (to the normal range) and regulate menstrual periods.  Again, birth control pills are cheap and affordable and have many other benefits in a female’s health. Currently, 25% of teen moms will have a second child within the first 24 months of their first child.  When researching teen pregnancy, it is obvious that IUDs are a strong solution to address teen pregnancy.  As a matter of fact, if we don’t stop teens from becoming pregnant then our teens could have a higher risk of getting serious medical risks and even suffer from death.  This is a story of a 15 year old girl who had an unexpected pregnancy.  She was in a fix, she spoke only spanish, and she was a teenager alone with only her father, and he was pretty mad.  She was having belly pain and didn’t understand why until the doctor broke it to them that she was pregnant.  She went to the Emergency Department two more times that month with the same complaint – pain and nausea.  The doctor made sure that the pregnancy was okay and explained to them that this is how pregnancy is.  Like toddlers, they are better explorers and have to try things for themselves.  But unlike toddlers, they get to try driving fast, drinking alcohol, staying out late, and sex.  Since the pregnancy of a teen is so devastating due to teen pregnancy, it is important that we support and teach our teens to be responsible for their actions in order to prevent them from becoming pregnant.  Unquestionably, IUDs are an impactful way to address the problem of teen pregnancy.  This is the path to forever change the future of all our teens.

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