The purpose of this essay is to discuss abnormality
and the influences of heredity and environment on two psychological disorders
which are Autism and Depression, Autism is a lifelong developmental
disability that affects how people perceive with the world and interacts with
others or how person communicates and relates to other people, and how they
experience the world around them. It can also be a complex disorder of brain
development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by
difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and
repetitive behaviour. But depression is a disorder that characterised by low
mood and a wide range of other possible symptoms which will vary from person to
person, this illness can develop quickly or gradually and be brought on by life
events or changes in body chemistry, it can strike anyone, and is manageable in
vary many cases.

Abnormality can be defined as a
feelings that start to take over some one’s life, when experiences things like
unexplained, changes in mood, lack of interest in socializing, lack of empathy,
inability to tell the difference between reality and fantasy or a seeming lack
of control.

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Abnormality can also defined as
deviation from the norms or a person that is unable to cope with the demand of
every life or perform the behaviours necessary for day-to-day activity, or an
experience in life or development of behaviour patterns that are considered
harmful for the individual; this may be behaviours that we learned from the
environment which is nurture.

The methods used for the classification
of autism and depression are DSM V and ICD mental diagnostician is an
international standard diagnostic classification for all general
epidemiological and many health management purposes and it consists of 10 main
groups including symptomatic, mental disorders. DSM-IV The classification
system of the American psychiatric Association (APA), the diagnostic and
statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV), consists of five axes of
disorders. The diagnostician suggested not to focus only on one clinical
disorder but to consider other important aspects.  

 Autism diagnosing in a person with an
intellectual disability is more difficult, as some of the criteria for autism
can be present in a person with an intellectual disability, mental delay may
mask the autism an a diagnosis may come later or not at all. {In the 1950’s and
1960’s there was speculation that parents may contribute to the condition,
research suggest that injury or dysfunction of the central nervous system may
result in autism, moreover if the individual display a number of this
behaviours on the assessment, then it is likely that they will have some degree
of autistic spectrum disorder.

Furthermore, the DSM-V-
committee has recently published diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder,
their believe is that by examine DSM has over looked a number of important
issues, including social imagination, the diagnosis in infancy and adulthood have
possibility that girls and abdomen with autism may continue to go unrecognised
or misdiagnosed under new manual. In addition, there is a conclude that a
number of changes need to be made in order that the DSM-V- criteria might be
used reliably.  

 Depression: There are different type of
depression symptoms that reliably occur together to form a type of mental disorders.
This allows psychiatrists doctors and psychologists to easily indentify groups
of similar patients. A diagnosis can be made, and a suitable treatment can be
developed and administered to all those showing similar symptoms.

The diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders (DSM) defines abnormality as a clinically
significant syndrome associated with distress, increase in the risk of pain or
death and the loss of functioning, The DMS is manual with over 200 specific
diagnostic categories for mental disorder.           

However, one of the largest problems
of diagnosing in patients is whether or not the diagnosing is valid or
reliable. The test –retest reliability is concerned with whether the same
patient will receive the same diagnosis if assessed more than once by the time
the literature review examining evidence relating to the reliability of
diagnosis of depression, they found that  there are many symptoms of depression which
include low-mood, feelings of hopelessness, low self-esteem, lethargy and sleep
problems, initial diagnosis of depression will help you to assess whether you
could be depressed, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 are both operational diagnostic system,
In conclusion there will always be issues of validity and reliability in
diagnosis, certain groups of people will be more likely to receive a diagnosis
to a disorder compared to others and psychiatrists will need to be careful when
diagnosing patients.

Mental health disorders, this
can be defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his
or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work
productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her
community. Mental health disorder can cover a broad range of disorders, but I
will only discuss Autism and Depression, but the common characteristic is that
they all affect the affected person’s personality, thought processes or social
interactions. They can be difficult to clearly diagnose, unlike physical
illnesses, According to data from SAMHSA, 20 percent of people in America
surfer from a form of mental disorder, and 5 percent surfer from a disorder
severe enough to affect school, work or other aspect of life.

Mental health disorder is still
a huge, prevalent problem to the uk’s wellbeing and recent budget cut, along
with a lack of available resources, have only worsened the situation.

Around 25% of people in the uk
are experiencing some form of mental health disorder in any given year with
depression affecting a massive 20% of our population let judge with this
diagram.

 

 

       

        

 

 

 

It is normal for someone you know to
experiences erratic thought patterns like feel sad, angry, confused, upset and
frustrated, but when this feelings start to take over your life, this is a
serious matter, or when you are experiences things like unexplained changes in
mood, lack of interest in socializing, lack of empathy,
inability to tell the difference between reality and fantasy or a seeming lack
of control, With all of this experiences you need to seek for medical help.

Additionally, when you have one or
more of this disorder, It means that you have a Genetic predisposition
which results to specific genetic variations that are often inherited from a
parent. These genetic changes and contributing to the development of a disease,
but it do not directly cause it. Some people with a predisposing genetic
variation will never get the disease while others will, even within the same
family. In people with a genetic predisposition, the risk of disease can depend
on multiple factors in addition to an identified genetic change. These include other
genetic factors (sometimes called modifiers) as well as lifestyle and
environmental factors.

Moreover nature and nurture also have a greater
impact on mental health disorder, because nature is the genetic or hormone
based on behaviours, while nurture is most commonly defined as environment and
experience that discovered genes for every behaviour. Nature is also a broadest
sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe and is generally
taken as the influence of external factors after conception e.g. the product of
exposure, experience and learning on an individual, recently the nature has
gained more attention, it has been discovered that genes for virtually every
behaviour psychology and socio-biology are branches of science that attempt to
demonstrate the evolutionary roots of human behaviour and the role of early
childhood environment, development and cultural influences. The environmental
aspects of it can be the habits of parents, friends, or a partner, might also
be significant factors contributing to the development of an addiction. There
is an argument that says socio-biology and evolutionary psychology are
deterministic pseudoscience.      

Mental health disorders can cause a
wide variety of emotional symptoms such as change in mood, erratic thinking,
chronic anxiety, exaggerated sense of self-worth, Impulsive action. Mental
health cannot be cured, but it can be treated or manage effectively, some
people with a mental health can get help to minimize the effects of the illness
and promote recovery, this can involve psychological therapy, medication and
various supports in the community, as well as people with the mental illness
helping themselves to help recover a balanced
life. Healthy eating, getting plenty of sleep, and regular physical activity
are all important to good mental health. Learning skills which help deal with
stress, feeling down, relationships or the symptoms of the illness, are also
ways in which someone with a mental illness can look after themselves. There are different factors contributing to the development of each
illness, it can sometimes be difficult to predict how, when, or to what degree
someone is going to get belter. Although
a person’s genetic makeup cannot be altered, some lifestyle environmental
modifications (such as having more frequent disease screenings and maintaining
a healthy weight) may be able to reduce disease risk in people with a genetic
predisposition.

Culture is a group of people’s way of life,
consisting of predictable patterns of values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours
which are passed down through generations, cultural differences can be crucial
in determining how well a family accepts a medical diagnosis and thus the
outcome by taking culture into account when establishing a treatment plan for a
devastating disability such as autism. Autism is a disorder present at birth or
may be diagnosed before age three in which behavioural, communication and
social abilities are impaired. There is no cure for autism because of the
lifelong effects on individuals and families, parents of autistic children suffer
from an increase in stress, a poorer quality of marriage, depression, anxiety
and increase in anger when compared to parents of typical children.

 It’s important to be aware
of how cultural values, such as religion, can be influential in the diagnosis,
treatment and welfare of families with an autistic child. Our job is to open
our minds to what we can learn from other cultures in order to better
meet the needs of our autistic children. Regardless of cultural group..
However, it is possible that the parents face processing deficits that may be
causally linked to their children in the form of prolonged early non parental
care, this can be an additional risk factor for autism, to my understanding of epigenetic
the social environment can influences gene expression and social development,
the true aetiology of autism may also incorporate, both nature and nurture – genetically
determined predispositions and the cumulative effects of exposure to adverse or
a typical social environments.

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