These factor applications can effectively reduce human
errors and their consequences by applying human factors awareness, training and
technology (Common Accident Models, n. d.). These processes integrated into a
safety program system because they each aim to make continuous improvement to
the overall level of safety. These models help in identifying human factor
issues and breaking down accidents to stop reoccurring trends. They are
effectively integrated into Safety Management Systems (SMS) because they all
identify hazards and risk control and mitigation before events that affect safety
can occur. The basic cause factors for accidents fall into the same categories
as the contributors for each of these models, which is why they are effective
in safety management systems.


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            The 5M model comprises of five core areas that contribute
to successful operations. The 5M’s are: “Man, Machine, Media, Management, and
Mission” (Chapter 15, 2000). Each element in the 5M diaphragm may have
influence on another element. This model is integrated into a safety program
system by using it to reassess the system when an accident occurs. Knowing the
5M’s can prevent future accidents by seeing how they affect other areas in the
model and stopping the risk or hazard before they occur.



            70 to 80 percent of all civil and military aviation
accidents have resulted because of human errors (Shappell & Wiegmann,
2000). Even though there is a high percentage of aviation accidents that occur
because of human error, most accident reporting systems are not conductive to a
traditional human error analysis. This makes identifying intervention
strategies difficult, especially since every person is different. The Human
Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was created to identify and
lessen the casual sequence of events that are associated with human error. The
HFACS model follows the Swiss model by describing the four levels of failure. The
first level on the model is unsafe acts. The second level is the preconditions
for unsafe acts. The third and fourth level are the unsafe supervision and the
organizational influences. The HFACS main purpose is to analyze human factors
by learning the impact they have on aviation accidents. The HFACS model can be
used in a predictive manner by how it learns from past accidents. While
learning from past accidents the system is also proactive by learning the
reoccurring trends in human performance to prevent future accidents. It
prevents future accident by taking these reoccurring trends and stopping them.

Human Factors Analysis and
Classification System

            The Shell model is a conceptual framework that explains
the scope of human factors in aviation. Each letter in the word shell stands
for a component: “Software, Hardware, Environment, Liveware (other), and
Liveware (you)” (Human factor review and error detection model, n. d.). The
model uses blocks to illustrate the different components of human factors. The Shell
model shows the importance on human being and human interfaces with other aviation
systems. It shows that humans are seldom the only cause of an accident. This model
considers both the active and latent failures in the aviation system (SHELL model,
2010). The Shell model is used in a proactive and predictive manner because it allows
organizations to understand the human factors relationships during operation, which
then reduces error and enhances safety.

Shell Model

            The definition of human factors is the study of
interactions between humans, tools, equipment, activities and any operations
they are involved in (Human Factor Review and Error Detection Models, n. d.). The
Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), SHELL, and the 5M models
are all frequently applied in a reactive manner. However, this research is conducted
to show how these models can be used in a proactive and predictive manner. It
will discuss how these processes integrated into a safety program system. Along
with how they are used for recognizing, tracking, and computing analytical
error tracking and why a safety management system pillars program is effective.

Factor Models