This study aimed to collect data across the two groups of
interest (current and prospective users of m-payment services) to test the
proposed objectives. The survey items used to measure the constructs were adapted
from the extant literature, allowing the researchers to align the final
questionnaire with the m-payment situation (see the appendix). Each
questionnaire item used a 7-point Likert-type scale that ranged from 1 (strongly
disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).


The questionnaire was developed in English, translated into
Kiswahili, and then back translated (into English) to confirm that no loss of
meaning occurred in the Kiswahili version during the translation process
(Douglas & Craig, 2007).  For the
purpose of this study, the target population includes any individual who
currently owns a mobile phone, as mobile phone users have a higher potential of
adopting m-payment services than individuals who do not have mobile phones (L.
Chen, 2008). The data collection technique used in this study was the time
series). Potential respondents were randomly approached at various mobile phone
shops in Mwanza, the second largest city in Tanzania mainland. Mwanza was
preferred as the sampling location because the largest pool of mobile phone
users is located in big cities of Dares salaam and Mwanza (National Bureau of
Statistics, TCRA, 2015).

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The researcher checked to determine whether the possible
respondents were appropriate for this study. They were asked whether they had participated
in this study before and whether they were adopters or non-adopters of
m-payment services. After fulfilling these criteria, the respondent was given a
questionnaire for completion.  At the end
of the review, a total of 825 completed questionnaires had been received,  29 cases were dropped because many values were
missing s. Other 10 cases were labelled as outliers hence  removed because they seemed to be abnormal and
non-representative of the general data set— resulting in data non-normality (Kline,
2005) and seriously affecting the statistical tests (Hair, Black, Babin, &
Anderson, 2010; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2006). Thus, the outliers dropped gave
the final sample of this study, with 785 respondents for the analysis. From a theoretical point of view, the
findings of this study hold several implications for scholars in the ground of
technology adoption. First, this study provides a better theoretical
understanding of the factors that influence the adoption of m-payment services
by identifying significant factors and comparing their special effects on
people who use this payment service and on non-users.  Second, it presses further the understanding
of key m-payment adoption attributes in the situation of mobile-based financial
service consumption. Finally, the model and its constructs can be simulated or
extended to unlike economies to establish whether the findings are related or
otherwise.From a practical perspective, the
findings of this study hold important implications for the practical context of
the m-payment industry in Tanzania in terms of strategies that it can adopt to pursue greater acceptance and
diffusion of m-payments in the mobile phone user market in Tanzania. First,
service providers should carefully consider issues regarding the service’s
compatibility with Tanzanian consumers as this study found that the supposed
compatibility construct influenced both current and potential users’ intentions
to adopt m-payment services. Hence, organizations that seek to promote
m-payment activities should ensure that the services offered to customers meet
their personal needs and reflect lifestyle considerations. Second, risk reduction is another vital issue that service providers
prioritize, especially among potential users. This finding implies that service
providers should make sure a strong security system when offering m-payment
services to customers. For instance, the application of a mobile digital
signature and highly secure passwords when conducting transactions can ensure
the confidentiality and authenticity of an m-payment system (E. Tan & Lau,
2016). In addition, offering potential users training and trial activities
before using an m-payment service may be a helpful approach to reduce their
level of risk. Third, the strong impact of degree at which an individual is intentions
are influenced, particularly among potential users, indicates that adopting
m-payment services can serve as a means to reinforce individuals’ social
connections and social status through group affiliation. The practical
implication of this finding is that service providers must consider people’s
social connections, networks, and status to potentially increase the use of
m-payment services. Accordingly, promoting m-payment services through a social
or community network may be a useful approach for m-payment service providers
(Phonthanukitithaworn et al., 2016). Finally, the service providers must emphasize the value of m-payment
services vis-à-vis traditional payment services and stress the efficient
advantage of using m-payment services to exhibit that the benefits gained
justify the cost. In addition, creative promotional and pricing strategies,
including cost reductions, should be implemented to attract price-conscious
there are several hurdles which impede the progress of the m-payment services
in Tanzania.  With this in mind, it
clearly implies all
studies unavoidably have limitations. First, this study focused to identify the
factors that influence m-payment adoption. Second, given the innovative nature
of m-payment services and the early stage of m-payment implementation, this
study focused solely on behavioral intentions as the dependent variable to
interpret theory-driven actual behavior in the early adoption stage. Therefore,
further studies may improve measurement reliability by employing additional
methods, such as a field study and/ or a longitudinal study, to more closely
observe and investigate the later stages of m-payment adoption. Finally, the
study sourced its data from Tanzania of which lack of information on technology
may have prejudiced the responses. Therefore, future research might look for to
include cultural factors in further exploring m-payment service adoption.