Unit
1 Assignment

Lyndon
Godsall

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Kaplan
University

IT530
Computer Networks

Abstract

There
are many differences and similarities between IPv4 and IPv6. Both
IPv4 an IPv6 use a Domain
Name System (DNS) which is an important part of communications
on the Internet. DNS translates text addresses into IP addresses and
then sends the packets of data information from one device to
another. The system allows users to type in addresses instead of IP
numbers. In the process the DNS converts the information in the
background. IPv6
has a greater capacity to identify a number of devices that are
connected to the Internet. It has been estimated that IPv4 has about
4 billion addresses but the new IPv6 will have theoretically,
trillions of address. To set up a network the user needs to
understand that DNS uses a hierarchy to manage it’s distributed
database system. If we look at the DNS structure we will see it is
like an inverted tree structure. The challenges in IPv6 preparation
could be misinformation that IPv6 offers little if no benefit over
IPv4. The challenges with IPv6 deployment may be the misinformation
that IPv6 brings no additional benefit over IPv4. It is known that
IPv6 will bring increased size and
reduce the costs of working across networks which will limit the
complexities introduced by the present system.

Unit
1 Assignment

The
Role of Domain Name System

When
most people use a computer or devise and navigate the Internet, they
are typing in addresses for the various websites they want to
navigate to. According to Liu (2017), the
Domain Name System (DNS) is one of the most critical parts of the
internet’s infrastructure, and yet most people know next to nothing
about it.
Some might be aware of what an IP address is and it typically looks
like this: 161.101.65.121, but most have no idea that the addresses
they are typing in are being converted to IP numbers. The conversion
of the text is done in the background by the Domain Name System
(DNS). The DNS converts the Internet domain and host names and
converts it to IP addresses. Some larger companies and institutions
can use the DNS to manage their own companies Intranets. However, in
a simple home network, the DNS is used for accessing the Internet but
not for managing the names of home computers.

How
does the DNS work? DNS is basically a database that is linking hosts
names such as http://bbc.co.uk to a specific IP address such as
171.212.45.121. When the DNS begins the conversion it is only the
start of a process that includes the mapping of addresses, which are
stored in the database. We know that DNS is a database but more
importantly it is a distributed database. In a way you could say
that it is the Internet’s equivalent of a phone book system.
Subsequently, a directory is maintained of domain names which are
translated to the Internet Protocol (IP).

DNS
hierarchy structure

The DNS
uses a hierarchy to manage it’s distributed database system. If we
look at the DNS structure we will see it is like an inverted tree
structure.
DNS was created in the early days of the Internet (How
DNS Works, 2003). Looking
more closely at domain names we will see that they begin with the
root then top level followed by second level or could be a
sub-domain. To allow computers and other devices to recognize a
domain name, a series of dots are placed between each section of the
name. Within the structure the resolvers treat the dots as
separators between each part of the domain name.

When
the qualified domain names are split into pieces and separated by the
dots, the tree is searched beginning at the root. What happens next
is the resolver works its way across the tree until it gets to the
left and last part of the domain name. Next it looks for the
information it needs. It begins to look for information about a host
such as it’s IP address name, and sometimes it’s function. All this
action is taking place to determine if it’s function is stored across
one or more zone files which together compose a bigger zone sometimes
referred to as a domain.

How
does IP addressing relate to DNS

The
IP address is assigned to a particular computer and it helps the
computer to be recognized by servers to identify it on a networks.
As we know, the Domain Name Service (DNS) is used to convert the
alphabetic references into a server address that is generally for
hosting services.

If
we look at the Internet we can find many programs that trade with IP
addresses, but allow users to stipulate devices in terms of their
host names. It is at this point that the IP addresses are supported
through a service called the Domain Name Service. There are constant
changes occurring with host names and IP addresses and to assist with
all these changes, “name servers” a series of DNS servers
constantly monitor the names and address information for all the
devices on the Internet. Typically, applications which require the
necessity to determine an IP address for a host name (or vice versa),
get in contact with the local “name-server” to process this
information.

Contrast
and comparison of IPv4 and IPv6 DNS

We
could ask the question about whether the Internet is running out of
IP addresses? The answer is no. First we had IPv4 and there was a
prediction that the IPv4 address would run out in 2010-20111. Along
comes IPv6 which was directly developed to replace IPv6. The Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) started working on IPv6. A
new version of Internet address protocol was formulated to increase
and eventually replace IPv4. According to Spector (2011)
the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is straight forward. General users
have known for years that a change was coming but few have bothered
to make the necessary changes.

How
does IPv6 solve the problem
of IPv4 address exhaustion

A
larger address space is part of IPv6 which allows it to identify
devices that are attached to the Internet. It has been estimated that
IPv4 has about 4 billion addresses but the new IPv6 will have a much
greater capacity. For the average user, the larger amount of IPv6
addresses means that home users will begin to use blocks of addresses
in sufficient quantities increasing networks capabilities and user
devices.

What’s
the difference between IPv4 and IPv6

According
to Jackson (2017)  IPv6
allows for many more devices to connect to the internet and will
allow us to assign new IPs for many years to come. If we look at
IPv4 and IPv6, we will see that there is a greater amount of space to
the amount of address space. A typical IPv6 address we will find
that it has 8 groups of four letters and numbers separated by colons.
IPv6 will support trillions of new Internet addresses required and
support connectivity for a huge range of smart devices such as
phones, household devices and vehicles. IPv6 will also convey
enhanced quality of service which is required in the field of
ecommerce. video/audio IP telephony,, interactive games.

Conclusion

The
Internet as everyone knows is evolving. General users imagine this
change in a series of updates to the software and network
applications that are familiar to them. The Internet has become an
even more critical infrastructure which has been supporting society
and commerce. With all this in mind it is likely the future of the
Internet is critical. The challenges with IPv6 deployment may be the
misinformation that IPv6 brings no additional benefit over IPv4. It
is known that IPv6 will bring increased size and
reduce the costs of working across networks which will limit the
complexities introduced by the present system.

Answer
Line By Lincoln Spector,PCWorld|Mar 25, 2011 7:54 AMPTAbout |
Solutions, Tips and Answers for PC Problems, & Lincoln
Spector,PCWorld|Mar 25, 2011 7:54 AMPT. (2011, March 25). When We
Run Out of IP Addresses. Retrieved January 22, 2018, from
https://www.pcworld.com/article/222548/no_ip_addresses.html

How
DNS Works.
(2003, March 28). Retrieved January 22, 2018, from
microsoft.com/en-us:
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc772774(WS.10).aspx

Liu,
C. (2017, September 07). What Is The Domain Name System And Why Does
It Matter? Retrieved January 22, 2018, from
https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2017/09/07/what-is- the-domain-name-system-and-why-does-it-matter/#7a3d46093796

What
Is the Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6? (2017, January 09).
Retrieved January 22, 2018, from
https://www.keycdn.com/blog/difference-between-ipv4-and-ipv6/

Author