Usual
root canal anatomy is complex and contains numerous ramifications and
morphologic irregularities that provide an environment for microbes to
colonize and cause disease 1
and hence the main microbiologic goal of the
chemomechanical preparation of infected root canals are to completely
eliminate intracanal bacterial populations or at least to reduce them to
levels that are compatible with periradicular tissue healing2 .However,
instrumentation must be combined with
adequate
irrigation to complete the cleaning process and decrease the microbial load
within the root canal system.3
NaOCl  the gold standard as a result of its
antimicrobial effect and tissue dissolution properties, it has no effect on
the inorganic portion of the smear layer . As a result, NaOCl is used in alliance
with EDTA, which acts on the inorganic debris formed in instrumented root
canals. Removal of the smear layer facilitates the diffusion of the chemical
substances, irrigants, and medications delivered to the root canal system,
thus allowing a more predictable disinfection and seal of the canal system 3.
The flushing action
of the irrigant may be more important during the cleaning process than the
ability of the irrigant to dissolve tissue4, Root canal irrigation systems can be divided into 2
broad categories, manual agitation techniques and machine-assisted agitation
devices . Manual irrigation includes positive pressure irrigation, which is
commonly performed with a syringe and a sidevented needle. On the other hand,
machine-assisted irrigation techniques include sonic and ultrasonic as well as newer systems like apical negative
pressure (ANP) irrigation3.
       

              
 
ENDOVAC(DISCUS
DENTAL, CULVER, CA), an apical negative pressure irrigation
system, was developed as a means
to irrigate and remove debris at the apex without
forcing irrigation solution into
the periapical area.5 The device consists of a delivery/
evacuation tip attached to a
syringe of irrigant and the high volume suction of the dental
chair. Using a combination of a
macro- or microcannula attached to the suction device,
introduced into the pulp chamber
is pulled by negative pressure down the canal
into the tip of the cannula and
removed through the suction hose. Measuring 0.32 mm
in diameter, the microcannula can
be placed to the working length provided the canal is
prepared
to at least an International Standards Organization 35 or larger 1 tip sizes
which can be attached to the handpiece. It does not deliver irrigant but
facilitates penetration and renewal of the irrigant in the canal.2
The ENDOACTIVATOR is a cordless, battery-operated sonic handpiece
that uses noncutting
polymer tips to quickly and
vigorously agitate irrigant solutions during treatment. The activator tips
are available in 3 sizes (yellow 15/02, red 25/04, and blue 35/04) and can be
activated in 3 speeds: 2,000, 6,000, and 10,000 cpm.2
PASSIVE ULTRASONIC
IRRIGATION (PUI)  An
ultrasonic tip is activated in the canal up to working length (WL) and is
moved passively in an up-and-down motion to ensure it did not bind with the
root canal walls6
 

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The CONVENTIONAL ENDODONTIC IRRIGATION SYRINGE AND NEEDLE is the most widely used because it is very easy to manipulate,
and there is good control of needle depth and volume of irrigant delivered 6 the tip of the needle is placed 2 to 3
mm short of the apical end of the canal, and the irrigant is passively
expressed.4agitation  achieved by moving
the needle up and down the canal space. Irrigation tip gauge and tip design can have a significant impact
on the irrigation flow pattern, flow velocity, depth of penetration, and
pressure on the walls and apex of the canal7
 

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