Whereas the serious adverse effects include arrhythmia, fibrosis of aortic valve, retroperitoneal or pulmonary, cyanosis, ischemia, precordial pain, gangrenous disorder, withdrawal symptoms, and ergotism.

The common side effects are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, edema, pruritus, myalgia, leg weakness, peripheral ischemia, paresthesia, asthenia, chest pain and dry mouth.

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Adverse effects:

It constricts the cranial vessels because of the depression of the central serotonergic neurons. It expands the tissue oxygenation by distributing the carotid blood flow over capillary and the arteriovenous anastomoses which upsurges the capillaries perfusion. It also causes the narrowing of peripheral and cranial blood vessels which will diminish the carotid blood movement in that place.

Pharmacological Effects:

It is an alkaloid derivative which is partially agonist/antagonist for alpha-adrenergic, dopaminergic and tryptaminergic receptors.

Mechanism of action:


However, the drugs can cause some serious side effects such as arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, coronary artery spasm, MI, ischemia, ischemic colitis, splenic infarction, anaphylaxis, hemorrhage, visual loss, and serotonin syndrome.

The common side effects include malaise, chest discomfort, soreness or slight pain at the application site, dizziness, numbness, vertigo, abnormal sensation, paresthesia, the sensation of extreme temperatures and throat pain.

Adverse effects:

The drug acts by blocking the transmission of the neurons presynaptically. This causes the inhibition of vasoactive peptides. It blocks the neurogenic inflammation. It also causes vasoconstriction of the cranial vessels postsynaptically.

Pharmacological Effects:

It is an agonist for 5HT1B/1D receptors. It binds to autoreceptors and acts on the intracranial blood vessels along with the nerves of the trigeminal system.

Mechanism of action:


Other miscellaneous drugs include Acetaminophen and Metoclopramide

Apart from these, ergots are used i.e. Dihydroergotamine and Ergotamine

The drugs used as pain relievers are Naproxen, paracetamol and certain NSAIDs such as aspirin, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac sodium, Naproxen sodium.

For the treatment of migraine, the first group of drugs to be mentioned is triptan. It includes Sumatriptan, Almotriptan, Eletriptan, Frovatriptan, Naratriptan, Rizatriptan, Zolmitriptan.



The other miscellaneous drugs are Magnesium, Riboflavin, Histamine, Petasites, Botox, Estradiol.


Next comes the triptans. The drugs are Frovatriptan, Naratriptan, and Zolmitriptan.


The drugs that come from the group of calcium channel blockers are verapamil hydrochloride, nimodipine, nifedipine, and diltiazem.


Antihypertensive is another group of drugs. It includes lisinopril and candesartan.


The next class of drugs- NSAIDs include the following drugs: Naproxen sodium, Mefenamic acid, Flurbiprofen sodium, Fenoprofen calcium, Ketoprofen, Aspirin. These all drugs have low efficacy and can exhibit mild-moderate side effects.


Next class of drugs is of anticonvulsants. It include valproic acid (valproate) and topiramate which is not yet proved with high efficacy.


Another class of drugs- antidepressants consists of tricyclic drugs such as amitriptyline, nortriptyline, protriptyline which have high efficacy. Venlafaxine also comes under the same category but not much studies prove its efficacy.

The first class of drugs that are used in the prophylaxis of migraine is beta antagonists. It mainly include propranolol and timolol which are high efficacy drugs with less adverse effects. Other drugs included in this class are atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol and pindolol which are of lower efficacy.