Yeast is a one-celled microorganism in the fungi kingdom. These microorganisms are all around us in the soil, plants, and air. There are many yeasts but we usually use Saccharomyces, yeast that is used to make bread. ( History, 2017)  After Studies, we have found that Egypt was the modern home to bread. After archaeologists looking around in Egypt ruins they found ovens in chambers with yeast in them and articles on the wall of recipes that all had yeast in them.  They used yeast and different ingredients to make loaves of bread and, they sometimes shaped the bread into animals for traditional purposes ( History, 2017)  The making of bread was founded in ancient times but didn’t start until 1676 when Anton Van Leeuwenhoek invented the first microscope. We used the microscope to find what yeast really was and how it worked. In 1859 Louis Pasteur discovered how yeast really worked.( History, 2017)  Yeast feeds on starch and produces carbon dioxide. Then the carbon dioxide enlarges the gluten in the flour. Years after the discovery Fleischmann’s® was founded and baking was started at it’s finest.( History, 2017) Polynesians used cane sugar first and gave it to India. 510 bc Emperor Darius of Persia killed the India people and found, “the reed which gives honey without bees”. The sugar cane that is secret was protected closely until the sugar cane was exported for many riches.( How, 2017)  When the Arab people got more land in the seventh century AD that leads to the sugar cane. When they killed the Persians in 642 AD they found grown sugar cane and learned how to grow it. They made sugar cane farms in North Africa and Spain.( How, 2017)  Sugar cane was only known in European countries so in the 11th century AD crusaders got back and started talking about sugar. The first sighting of sugar was 1099 in Europe. Trade boomed in Europe as sugar was the main trading item. ( How, 2017)  Sugar was also sold to London who sold it for 1 shillings a pound in 1319 AD. That is like one hundred dollars in the US per kilometer these days. It used to be very cheap. In the 15th century AD, the sugar was refined in Venice, confirming that it was hard to transport this good at a steady rate.( How, 2017)  Then Columbus sailed to America. In 1493 he got to the Caribbean islands and planted sugarcane to grow. The climate proved well for the sugar cane and become industrious for sugarcane. ( How, 2017)  In 1750 there were 120 factories in Britain refining sugar. The combined amount was only 30,000 tons per annum. In 1750 sugar was still a luxury and made vast profits. ( How, 2017) The profit that went towards making more sugar was known as white gold. The Government recognized the vast profit on sugar and taxed it highly. In 1781 tax on sugar collected £326,000. The amount of money on sugar tax just kept rising, by 1815 they collected £3,000,000. ( How, 2017)  It stayed like this until 1874 when the British government led by prime minister Gladstone got rid of the tax and brought sugar prices to ordinary people. Sugar beet was found as a source of sugar in 1747. People who vested in sugarcane product only wanted this to be a curiosity. ( How, 2017)   This was ongoing until Napoleonic Wars, at the begging of the 19th century. Today’s sugar industry is still involved with the government at many levels throughout the world. Annual consumption is at 120 million tons and is growing 2 million tons per annum. ( How, 2017)  The three biggest sugar producers are the European Union, Brazil, and India. Together they account for 40% of the annual sugar produced. But most of the sugar is consumed in their countries and only 25% is international traded. ( How, 2017)  When making bread the yeast reacts with the sugar and starch to make the bread rise. There is only about 2% sugar in flour, But the starches break down into sugars as well. This is the process of enzymes.     ( Buehler, September 28, 2012)  Enzymes are described as a large particle, usually a protein that catalyzes a biological reaction. This means that enzymes speed up the reaction by cutting down whatever tries to stop it. There is a chance that when molecules bump into each other they will create a new molecule by combining with each other.            ( Buehler, September 28, 2012)  It is much easier for two unstable molecules to create a new one when they bump into each other. In some cases, molecule bonds must spit open so new ones can form. The energy created from the breaking of old bonds gives the energy to create new bonds held by the energy barrier. ( Buehler, September 28, 2012)  You can speed up the process of this reaction by heating it up. The hotter molecules are the faster they move and the more energy they produce to react faster. If they have enough energy more reaction will occur because it will get over the barrier. ( Buehler, September 28, 2012)  Another way to speed up the process is to weaken the barrier. When less energy is used more molecules get over the barrier and react at a quicker rate than if they were to have to use more energy to get over the barrier. Breaking the barrier is what the catalysts are for.  ( Buehler, September 28, 2012)  A Catalyst changes the situation so the barrier can’t stop the reaction. Enzymes are a type of catalysts; They work on biological reactions. 4,000 reactions are caused to have enzymes. ( Buehler, September 28, 2012)  Enzymes catalyze, are part of three main reactions used in bread making. Starch breaks into maltose, a sophisticated sugar that breaks into simple sugars, and breaking protein strains. The reaction could happen without enzymes but it is highly unlikely. ( Buehler, September 28, 2012)  The manufacturing of yeast is like farming. It takes preparation, seedling, cultivation, and harvesting. Yeasts very food is sugar, it eats it up like candy.( Buehler, September 28, 2012)The making of yeast, molasses is used to give to this sugar source. Molasses is the by-product sugar beets and sugarcane. Either cane molasses and beet molasses will work. ( Buehler, September 28, 2012) Most companies prefer a mixture of cane molasses and beet molasses. The process of making this product is taken with the most amount of care to ensure the quality of the product is the best it can be. Samples are constantly checked and the equipment is constantly being washed and defected.  ( Buehler, September 28 2012)  Before the birth of Jesus, sugar cane was harvested on the bay of Bengal. It spread to the surrounding countries of Indonesia Malaysia Indochina and southern China. The Arabic people introduced sugar to the western world. (sugar, 2017)  They also brought the knowledge and reed of sugar over to the western people. Then in the eighth and ninth century, they gave it to Spain to.  Later Venice finished shipping off finished sugar from Alexandria, succeeded in establishing a monopoly over this new spice. (sugar, 2017)  At this point it started buying raw sugar and sugarcane in the 15th century sugar industry. However, the Venice monopoly was short-lived. In 1948, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama returned from India bringing the sweet flavoring to Portugal. (sugar, 2017)  Libson started to import and refined raw sugar. In the 16th it became the European sugar capital. Then the sweetener became available in France. (sugar, 2017)  It’s primary use as medicine. During the reign of Louis XIV, sugar could be bought by the ounce at the apothecary. By the 1800 sugar was widely available to the upper and middle class.

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